Author Topic: Mountains, Quran and Science  (Read 567 times)

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Offline Mahir Adnan

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Mountains, Quran and Science
« on: August 28, 2018, 07:27:30 am »



Quran never said, Mountains prevent earthquakes [Zakir Naik]
in Surah Luqman, Ch. No. 31 Verse No.10, as well as in Surah Nahl, Ch. No. 16, Verse No. 15, that…

‘We have made the mountains standing firm on the Earth, lest it would shake with them and with you.’

The function of the mountain in the Qur’an, is given to prevent the Earth from shaking. Nowhere does the Qur’an say that the mountain prevents the earthquake.

And Dr. William Campbell said - He writes in his book, and even the talk, that… ‘You find in the mountains regions, there are various earthquakes, and mountains cause earthquake.’

Point to be noted- Nowhere does the Qur’an say that mountains prevent earthquake. The Arabic word for ‘earthquake’ as Dr. William Campbell knows Arabic, is ‘zilzaal’ or‘zalzala’- But  the words used in these three Verses I quoted, it is ‘Tamida.’ ‘Tamida’ means ‘to shake’, ‘to ‘sway’,  ‘to swing.’ And Qur’an says in Surah Luqman, Ch. 31, Verse No. 10, as well as Surah Nahl, Ch. No. 16 Verse No. 15…

‘We have put on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it would shake with you.

It is ‘tamide bikum’…‘Shake with you’, ...

according to Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Najjat who is from Saudi Arabia, and he wrote a full book on the Geological concepts in theQur’an, answering almost every thing what Dr. William Campbell has said - in detail. And Dr. William Campbell in his book, he writes that…‘If mountains prevent the shaking of the earth, then how come you find earthquakes in the mountains regions.’

I said, No where does the Qur’an say, mountains prevent earthquake. Earthquake is ‘zilzaal’ - and if you see the definition in the Oxford dictionary, it says… Earthquake is due to convulsion of the superficial crust of the Earth, due to relief of compressed Siesmic waves, due to crack in the rock, or due to volcanic reaction. The Qur’an speaks about ‘zalzala’in Surah Zalzaal, Ch. 99.

But here it speaks about ‘tamida bikum’- ‘to prevent the earth from shaking with you.’ And in reply to the statement…‘That if mountains prevent earthquakes, how come you find earthquakes in mountainous regions ?’ The reply is, that - If I say that medical doctors, they prevent the sickness and disease in a human being, and if someone argues…‘If doctors prevent the sickness and diseases in a human being, how come you find more sick people in the hospitals, where there are more doctors than at home - where there are no doctors.’

Mountains and Earth's rotation
NASA says, "To understand the concept of angular momentum, visualize the Earth spinning in space. Given Earth’s overall mass and its rotation, it contains a certain amount of angular momentum. When an additional force acting at a distance from the Earth's rotational axis occurs, referred to as a torque, such as changes in surface winds, or the distribution of high and low pressure patterns, especially near mountains, it can act to change the rate of the Earth’s rotation or even the direction of the rotational axis". [ https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0210rotation.html ]

My opinion:
Wind on land and water changes earth's angular momentum. All of this change is balanced by a small number of mountains on landmass. Because mountains affects wind flow.

Mountains and ground motion
Zakir Naik explained that mountains do not prevent earthquakes, rather they prevent shaking [ground motion]. Ground motion is the movement of the earth's surface from earthquakes or explosions.

Only effects of mountains are being considered
RESEARCH ARTICLE|DECEMBER 01, 2007
Effects of Large-Scale Surface Topography on Ground Motions, as Demonstrated by a Study of the San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles, California 
Shuo Ma; Ralph J. Archuleta; Morgan T. Page
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2007) 97 (6): 2066-2079.
https://doi.org/10.1785/0120070040
Abstract
We investigate the effects of large-scale surface topography on ground motions generated by nearby faulting. We show a specific example studying the effect of the San Gabriel Mountains, which are bounded by the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault on the north and by the Los Angeles Basin on the south. By simulating a Mw 7.5 earthquake on the Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault, we show that the San Gabriel Mountains act as a natural seismic insulator for metropolitan Los Angeles. The topography of the mountains scatters the surface waves generated by the rupture on the San Andreas fault, leading to less-efficient excitation of basin-edge generated waves and natural resonances within the Los Angeles Basin. The effect of the mountains reduces the peak amplitude of ground velocity for some regions in the basin by as much as 50% in the frequency band up to 0.5 Hz. These results suggest that, depending on the relative location of faulting and the nearby large-scale topography, the topography can shield some areas from ground shaking.

RESEARCH ARTICLE|FEBRUARY 01, 2009
Effects of Topography on Seismic-Wave Propagation: An Example from Northern Taiwan 
Shiann-Jong Lee; Dimitri Komatitsch; Bor-Shouh Huang; Jeroen Tromp
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2009) 99 (1): 314-325.
https://doi.org/10.1785/0120080020
 
Abstract
Topography influences ground motion and, in general, increases the amplitude of shaking at mountain tops and ridges, whereas valleys have reduced ground motions, as is observed from data recorded during and after real earthquakes and from numerical simulations...  if a shallow earthquake occurs in the I-Lan region of Taiwan, the Central Mountain Range will significantly scatter the surface waves and will in turn reduce the amplitude of ground motion in the Taipei basin...

Effects of other features are considered too
However, as the hypocenter moves deeper, topography scatters body waves, which subsequently propagate as surface waves into the basin. These waves continue to interact with the basin and the surrounding mountains, finally resulting in complex amplification patterns in Taipei City, with an overall PGV increase of more than 50%. For realistic subduction zone earthquake scenarios off the northeast coast of Taiwan, the effects of topography on ground motion in both the mountains and the Taipei basin vary and depend on the rupture process. The complex interactions that can occur between mountains and surrounding areas, especially sedimentary basins, illustrate the fact that topography should be taken into account when assessing seismic hazard.

[Shiann-Jong Lee, Dimitri Komatitsch, Bor-Shouh Huang, Jeroen Tromp; Effects of Topography on Seismic-Wave Propagation: An Example from Northern Taiwan. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America ; 99 (1): 314–325. doi: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120080020 ]

My opinion
So, if we consider the effect of mountains only, it is proved that mountains act as  a natural seismic insulator like san gabriel mountains. But ,when other features come into the scene like taipei basin, similar effect may not be achieved. So, the Quran is correct, because Quran is talking only about the effects of mouontains, not combined effect of other features too.

Following article is taken from 'Stars on the Earth: Domes and Stargates, and How to Interact with Them' By Richard Leviton [page : 98-100]

[ Richard Leviton is an American writer, researcher and editor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Leviton

Since 1984, he has been interacting with and describing the Earth’s Light body and through workshops facilitating in others directed visionary encounters with the planet.

For more information about the author: http://www.blueroomconsortium.com/founder.asp ]

Richard Leviton writes:-
The ancient view from Persia about aerial sky cords connected to one central cosmic mountain seeems congruent with modern plate tectonics theory. Making the link for us is a prescient observation from the Quran (78: 6-7), which says, "Have we not made the earth as a wide expanse, and the mountains as pegs?" The key Arabic word is awtad which means stakes or pegs, like those used to anchor a tent into the ground. In this view, the mountains had a form like wedge-shaped pegs or stakes rooted deep into the Earth and they kept the land from shaking; most of a properly set peg is buried beneath the ground's surface, like a mountain's roots. In geological terms, a mountain has deep roots into the Earth's crust and acts to stabilize it across the planet and keep the continental plaates fastened. Maybe the weight helps too. The Quran says (16:15) that moun-tains keep the Earth from shaking by stabilizing the crust: "And He has set firm mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with you...."

...You can see the inherent instability in this picture: rigid, brittle land mass plates, the lithosphere, all of Earth life above them, riding a mobile, plastic, malleable soft undersea of flowing rocks. Or we could say, the flowing but not quite molten rocks of the asthenosphere carry the Earth's lithosphere and tectonic plates on its back. Some geologists liken the viscosity of the mantle to piano wire. Look under the "hood" of a Steinway and you'll see strings capable of floating a continent. "They are rigid, but ever so slowly they will sag, will slacken, will deform, and give way, with the exact viscosity of the earth's mantle." [84]...

...Since the majority of the Earth's crust is thin and set on a very hot, unstable, and moving molten sea, it is vulnerable to shaking; also, due to the Earth's rotation on its axis, these tidal forces can cause the plates to shift too much.[85] The mountains act like stakes or nails inserted into the crust to steady and stabilize it. Thus the mountains are physical pegs that tie down the aerial sky cords.

Let's stay with the plate tectonics and Pangaea theory a little longer. When we consider the first arrival of the domes we are dealing with the Earth's earliest days, the time when the lithosphere was first created, or extrapolated, and to a quality of the planet's surface which various myths from different cultures hint at as being wet, malleable clay, when its land-scape features and the density of the land itself were still congealing. The domes came and it was like wrapping a star cluster around the young Earth. The location and function of every star in this cluster was accounted for. The draping of the star cluster was perfectly matched to the landforms, both present and to emerge. We are talking about the ear-liest terraforming days of the planet, when its landmasses and landscape configurations started to take shape, started to be purposefully shaped, and started to congeal and harden to be a walkable surface.[86]

------------------------------------

[84] John McPhee, Annals of the Former World (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998): 45.

[85] Due to the influence of low-intensity but prolonged stresses (such as the planet's rotation on its axis and the Earth's internal heat radiation), forces that drive the movements of plate tectonics, "the lithosphere responds essentially as a rigid shell and thus deforms primarily through brittle failure, while the asthenos-phere accommodates strain through plastic deformation." "Lithosphere," Wikipedia, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithosphere

[86] Geologists prefer the explanation that blind forces of Nature inexorably pro-duce results, but intellectually this seems an inadequate explanation. Something mechanical needs an operator. The Earth is a designer planet; that means every-thing has been designed, planned, accounted for, and supervised. Things were not left to chance or to the opportunistic, impersonal accidents scientists prefer. The allocation of geomantic features to landmasses was planned out long in advance, which means the size, type, and situation of the various landmasses had to be accounted for and perhaps adjusted along the way by the master planetary engineers. The powerful Earth forces described by geologists are certainly real, but they are the car's motor: somebody (the agents of the Designer) is driving the vehicle and they have a destination and route in mind.[/size][/font]