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16
Hadiths & Sunna, and Prophet Muhammad's Person / DIVINITY OF HADITH/SUNNA:
« on: February 11, 2013, 11:37:57 PM »
Sunnah or Hadith

Islam, the Arabic word Sunnah has come to denote the way Prophet Muhammad (S), the Messenger of Allah, lived his life. The Sunnah is the second source of Islamic jurisprudence, the first being the Qur’an. Both sources are indispensable; one cannot practice Islam without consulting both of them. The Arabic word hadith (pl. ahadith) is very similar to Sunnah, but not identical. A hadith is a narration about the life of the Prophet (S) or what he approved - as opposed to his life itself, which is the Sunnah as already mentioned.
In M. M. Azami's Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, the following precise definition of a hadith is given,

According to Muhaddithiin [scholars of hadith -ed.] it stands for 'what was transmitted on the authority of the Prophet, his deeds, sayings, tacit approval, or description of his sifaat (features) meaning his physical appearance. However, physical appearance of the Prophet is not included in the definition used by the jurists.'

Thus hadith literature means the literature, which consists of the narrations of the life of the Prophet and the things approved by him. However, the term was used sometimes in much broader sense to cover the narrations about the Companions [of the Prophet -ed.] and Successors [to the Companions -ed.] as well.

The explosion of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries confronted Islamic scholars with a daunting task: to preserve the knowledge of the Sunnah of the Prophet (S). Hence the science of hadith evaluation was born.

The promise of Allah

The promise made by Allah (SWT) in Qur'an 15:9 is obviously fulfilled in the undisputed purity of the Qur'anic text throughout the fourteen centuries since its revelation. However, what is often forgotten by many Muslims is that the divine promise also includes, by necessity, the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), because the Sunnah is the practical example of the implementation of the Qur'anic guidance, the wisdom taught to the Prophet (PBUH) along with the scripture, and neither the Qur'an nor the Sunnah can be understood correctly without the other.

Allah (SWT) preserved the Sunnah by enabling the companions and those after them to memorize, write down and pass on the statements of the Prophet (PBUH), and the descriptions of his way, as well as to continue the blessings of practicing the Sunnah.

Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became threatened, Allah (SWT) caused the Muslim Ummah to produce individuals with exceptional memory skills and analytical expertise, who travelled tirelessly to collect thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of prophetic wisdom from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and from the statements of the large number of Ulama (scholars), the companions and those who followed their way. All of this was achieved through precise attention to the words narrated, and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of hadith.

The methodology of the expert scholars of hadith in assessing the narrations and sorting out the genuine from the mistaken and fabricated, for ms the subject matter of the science of hadith. In this article a brief discussion is given of the terminology and classifications of hadith.

Components of Hadith
A hadith is composed of three parts (see the figure [below]):




Matn (text), isnad (chain of reporters), and taraf (the part, or the beginning sentence, of the text which refers to the sayings, actions or characteristics of the Prophet (PBUH), or his concurrence with others action). The authenticity of the hadith depends on the reliability of its reporters, and the linkage among them.

Classifications of Hadith

A number of classifications of hadith have been made. Five of these classifications are shown in the figure [below], and are briefly described subsequently.



1)According to the reference to a particular authority

Four types of hadith can be identified.
Qudsi - Divine; a revelation from Allah (SWT); relayed with the words of the Prophet (PBUH).
Marfu - elevated; a narration from the Prophet (PBUH), e.g. I heard the Prophet (PBUH) saying ...
Mauquf- stopped: a narration from a companion only, e.g., we were commanded to ...
Maqtu' - severed: a narration from a successor

It invites his attention to the history of those who purchased the punishment of Hell in exchange for the comforts of this world. It tells him of those who were granted the entry into Paradise for having led a life of purity.

Briefly put, the Qur'an prepares man for attaining salvation both in this world and the next through obedience to the Divine commandments.





2)According to the links of Isnad - interrupted or uninterrupted

Six categories can be identified.
Musnad - supported: a hadith which is reported by a traditionalist, based on what he learned from his teacher at a time of life suitable for learning; similarly - in turn - for each teacher until the isnad reaches a well known companion, who in turn, reports from the Prophet (PBUH).
Mutassil - continuous: a hadith with an uninterrupted isnad which goes back only to a companion or successor.
Mursal - hurried: if the link between the successor and the Prophet (PBUH) is missing, e.g. when a successor says "The Prophet said...".
Munqati - broken: is a hadith whose link anywhere before the successor (i.e., closer to the traditionalist recording the hadith) is missing.
Mu'adal - perplexing: is a hadith whose reporter omits two or more consecutive reporters in the isnad.
Mu'allaq - hanging: is a hadith whose reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes the Prophet (PBUH) directly (i.e., the link is missing at the beginning).


3)According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of Isnad

Five categories of hadith can be identified:
Mutawatir - Consecutive: is a hadith which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together.
Ahad - isolated: is a hadith which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir.
It is further classified into:
Mash'hur - famous: hadith reported by more than two reporters.
Aziz - rare, strong: at any stage in the isnad, only two reporters are found to narrate the hadith.
Gharib - strange: At some stage of the Isnad, only one reporter is found relating it.


4)According to the nature of the text and isnad

Munkar - denounced: is a hadith which is reported by a weak narrator, and whose narration goes against another authentic hadith.
Mudraj - interpolated: an addition by a reporter to the text of the hadith being narrated.


5)According to the reliability and memory of the reporters
 
This provides the final verdict on a hadith - four categories can be identified:
Sahih - sound. Imam Al-shafi'i states the following requiremetts for a hadith, which is not mutawatir, to be acceptable "each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion; he should be known to be truthtul in his narrating, to understand what he narrates, to know how a different expression can alter the meaning, and to report the wording of the hadith verbatim, not only its meaning".
Hasan - good: is the one where its source is known and its reporters are unambiguous.
Da'if - weak: a hadith which fails to reach the status of hasan. Usually, the weakness is: a) one of discontinuity in the isnad, in which case the hadith could be - according to the nature of the discontinuity - munqati (broken), mu'allaq (hanging), mu'dal (perplexing), or mursal (hurried), or b) one of the reporters having a disparaged character, such as due to his telling lies, excessive mistakes, opposition to the narration of more reliable sources, involvement in innovation, or ambiguity surrounding his person.
Maudu' - fabricated or forged: is a hadith whose text goes against the established norms of the Prophet's sayings, or its reporters include a liar. Fabricated hadith are also recognized by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident.


 Other Resources For Hadith :-
Sahih Bukhari : http://www.quraan.com/Bukhari/Default.asp
Sahih Muslim : http://www.quraan.com/Muslim/Default.asp
An Nawwawis 40 Hadith : http://www.quraan.com/Nawawi/Default.asp
40 Hadith Qudsi : http://www.quraan.com/Qudsi/Default.asp
Maliks Muwatta : http://www.quraan.com/Malik/Default.asp

17
Total crimes (most recent) by country

RANK      COUNTRIES      AMOUNT
   
#1       United States:          11,877,218    
# 2       United Kingdom:   6,523,706    
# 3       Germany:                   6,507,394    
#4       France:              3,771,850    
#5       Russia:              2,952,370    
#6       Japan:              2,853,739    
#7       South Africa:           2,683,849    
#8       Canada:      2,516,918    
#9       Italy:      2,231,550    
#10       India:      1,764,630    

http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_tot_cri-crime-total-crimes

NON ISLAMIC COUNTRIES ARE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF CRIME COMPARE TO ISLAMIC COUNTRIES THE FOLLWING LINK GIVES U MORE DETAILS REPORT:

http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-top-ten/countries-with-highest-reported-crime-rates.html
http://rechten.uvt.nl/icvs/images/Graph03.JPG
http://rechten.uvt.nl/icvs/images/graph05.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_metropolitan_areas_by_intentional_homicide
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_murder_rate

WORLD MOST LEADING RAPIST COUNTRY:

Rank     Countries      Amount      

#1       Lesotho:       0.844 per 1,000 people       
#2       New Zealand:    0.315    
#3       Belgium:   0.299       
#4       Iceland:       0.286    
#5       Norway:       0.203
#6       Israel:      0.166
#7       Finland:       0.141
#8       Chile:       0.12
#9       Mongolia:   0.118    
#10       Ireland:       0.102

http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_rap_percap-crime-rapes-per-capita

UN Rape Statistics:

RANK  COUNTRY  AMOUNT

1    United States of America   93883
2    Australia                      18237
3    United Kingdom           13272
4    France                              10408
5    Germany                 8766
6    Russian Federation              8185

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rape_statistics
http://www.yellodyno.com/pdf/Rape_Statistics.pdf

Divorce rate (most recent) by country

Rank     Countries      Amount   

#1       United States:   4.95 per 1,000 people    
#2       Puerto Rico:   4.47     
#3       Russia:      3.36     
#4       United Kingdom:   3.08     
#5       Denmark:   2.81    
#6       New Zealand:   2.63     
#7       Australia:   2.52    
# 8       Canada:      2.46     
#9       Finland:      1.85     
#10       Barbados:   1.21    

http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/peo_div_rat-people-divorce-rate

List of countries by alcohol consumption:

 Moldova      18.22   
 Czech Republic   16.45   
 Hungary      16.27   
 Russia      15.76   
 Ukraine      15.60   
 Estonia      15.57   
 Andorra      15.4
11.30      15.30   
 Slovenia      15.19

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_alcohol_consumption

LIKE THAT................
Assault victims (most recent) by country
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_ass_vic-crime-assault-victims
Car thefts (most recent) by country
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_car_the-crime-car-thefts
 Murders with firearms (most recent) by country
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_mur_wit_fir-crime-murders-with-firearms
Suicide rates in ages 25-34 (most recent) by country
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_sui_rat_in_age_25_34-suicide-rates-ages-25-34
 Gun violence : Homicides &homicides with firearms
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_gun_vio_hom_hom_wit_fir-crime-gun-violence-homicides-firearms
Suicide rates in ages 15-24 (most recent) by country
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_sui_rat_in_age_15_24-suicide-rates-ages-15-24


'World's Largest' Online Pedophile Ring Smashed In Europe
http://yellodyno.com/Statistics/statistics_child_molester.html

CHILD PROSTITUTION:

Romania: 2,000 minors victim to prostitution.

The Netherlands: 1,000 children walk the streets.

Northern Italy: 40% of prostitution affects minors.

Belgium: All sorts of young Albanian, Bulgarian, or Ukrainian girls ages 13- 16 years old were discovered in Brussels in 2000.

France:  The number would hit 8,000 according to estimations from 2003.

Cambodia: One-third of 50,000 to 70,000 of prostitutes are children.

Popular China: It is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 500,000 child prostitutes.

India: According to UNICEF, India is one of the countries with the most child prostitutes. According to a study from the magazine India Today, between 400,000 and 500,000 children are prostitutes in India.

Japan: In this country, child prostitution is frequent. Research has shown that most of the young girl prostitutes do not suffer from economic problems but are "victims" of a culture of consumerism. Minor girls decide to sell their bodies or participate in a pornographic film in order to buy luxury products: cell phones, shoes, clothes. This often comprises very young girls who have either problems in their family or in school.

Nepal: It is estimated that 12,000 Nepali children, the majority girls, are victims each year of commercial sexual exploitation, whether in Nepal or in brothels in India or other countries.

Philippines: Between 80,000 and 100,000 children, the large majority girls, are victims of prostitution in the Philippines.

Sri Lanka: 30,000 children, mostly boys.

Taiwan: 100,000 minors subjected to sexual exploitation

Thailand: A study of the black market by the International Labor Organization in Thailand in 1998 estimates that prostitution represents 10-14% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country in 1998. It is believed that one-third of Thai prostitutes, 24,000-40,000, are minors, sometimes abducted and sold. More than one-quarter are infected with HIV.

Vietnam: 12,000 minor prostitutes according to UNICEF. According to other NGOs, the figures would much heavier. More than 450 Vietnamese children less than 15 years old have been sent to Cambodia to be prostitutes in 2001 (UNICEF).

Brazil: One of the countries most affected by child prostitution (Fortaleza Airport has seen a constant increase from foreign visitors). There are no statistics for prostitution, but 100,000 children on the streets are "exposed" to sexual exploitation. Certain NGOs estimate much higher numbers.

Colombia: 5,000 to 7,000 children in Bogota

Venezuela: 40,000 minors victim to prostitution

Costa Rica: According to NGOs, there are at least 250 child prostitution locations.

United States: Between 244,000 to 325,000 child prostitutes

Canada: The country is becoming alarmed by the rise in child prostitution, notably amongst children of native peoples, victim to the sex industry. This child prostitution is caused by racism, lack of education, and poverty.

http://www.fondationscelles.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=87:la-prostitution-des-enfants-dans-le-monde&catid=10:fiches-thematiques&Itemid=12&lang=en

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sexual_abuse


Child sex tourism :

Thailand : 40% of prostitutes are child in Thailand
Northern Italy: 40% of prostitution affects minors.
Cambodia: 1/3 of prostitutes are child
 India : 1.2 million child prostitutes
 Brazil:  1.2 million child prostitutes
United States: Between 244,000 to 325,000 child prostitutes.
China: It is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 500,000 child prostitutes.
 Mexico:16,000 children in Mexico were involved in prostitution
 Sri Lanka, there are nearly 40,000 child prostitutes
In the Philippines, there are 60,000 to 100,000 prostituted children
In Nepal approximately 30% of them were found to be children.
in Vietnam, and 20,000 of these are children.
in Ukraine, research has shown that between 30 and 40 percent of prostitutes are between 11 and 18 years
in Russia approximately 20 to 25 percent of Moscow's sex workers are minors.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sex_tourism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution_of_children
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sexual_abuse

POPULAR MALE PROSTITUTE CENTER :

Male street prostitutes solicited clients in specific areas which became known for the trade. Well-known areas for street "hustlers" have included: parts of 53rd Street in New York; Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles; Piccadilly Circus, in London; "The Wall" in Sydney's Darlinghurst; The Drug Store and Rue Saint Anne in Paris; Polk Street Gulch in San Francisco; Willow Avenue and Easton Avenue, County Route 527 in Franklin[disambiguation needed], New Jersey, Bars such as Cowboys and Cowgirls and Rounds in New York, Numbers in Los Angeles and certain go-go bars in Patpong Thailand were popular venues where male prostitutes offered their services.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male_prostitution

Congo Study Sets Estimate for Rapes Much Higher
A new study in The American Journal of Public Health, expected to be published Thursday online, estimates that nearly two million women have been raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with women victimized at a rate of nearly one every minute.
Enlarge This Image

Michael Kamber for The New York Times
Anna Mburano, who says she is about 80 years old, stands in front of her home in Luvungi, Congo, with Joel, her 2-year-old grandson. She was raped when rebels from a nearby forest swarmed and occupied the village in 2010.
The study, one of the first comprehensive looks at the prevalence of rape in Congo, indicates that the problem is much bigger and more pervasive than previously thought. Women have reported alarming levels of sexual abuse in the capital and in provinces far from Congo’s war-torn east, a sign that the problem extends beyond the nation’s primary conflict zone.
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/12/world/africa/12congo.html?_r=3&



Baba Mezia 59b. A rabbi debates God and defeats Him. God admits the rabbi won the debate.

Pesahim 111a. It is forbidden for dogs, women or palm trees to pass between two men, nor may others walk between dogs, women or palm trees. Special dangers are involved if the women are menstruating or sitting at a crossroads.

Menahoth 43b-44a. A Jewish man is obligated to say the following prayer every day: Thank you God for not making me a gentile, a woman or a slave.
Lies of a Roman Holocaust



ADVICE TO ALL ISLAM PHOBIC ZOMBIES[ALI SINNER,SPENCER,WOOD,GALLER,WILD,ETC]...............ADVICE THEM [TRUTH WITH EVIDENCE MENTIONED ABOVE ] FIRST BEFORE THE MUSLIM IF U HAVE AT LEAST LITTLE BIT MORALITY,TRUTH,COURAGE..................



   

18
Jesus Christ is that great son of man who was appointed to return the lost children of Israel to the House of the Lord. The Saviour of Israel who was born in Bethlehem twenty centuries ago lived casting out radiance upon his people. As one engaged in a battle against the institution of a decadent priesthood as well as the traditional belief systems, he had to confront much opposition. Indeed, the high priests had even decided upon the crucifixion of the great man on the cross. He had shown miracles to prove that he was sent by God Himself.

What was this 'Gospel' which he had preached at the cost of sacrifices and by way of his showing miracles?

He had spoken of the Day of Judgment. Christ was that great lover of humanity who had realized the fact that mere legislations and governments alone can never make a man good. He taught that the ultimate objective of human life was entry into Paradise and escape from Hellfire. He proclaimed the eternal life of the Kingdom of Heaven to be much higher than the transitory goods and comforts of this life. He had enlightened the people on this matter with the aid of some of the most beautiful and lofty examples that could be conceived.   "Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy, and where thieves break in and steal. But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also." (Mathew 6:19-21)

Christ who strictly taught that it is better to cut off here, and now, the parts of the body that are the cause of sin than to subject one's whole body to the fire of Hell, essentially teaches that it is better to save oneself from Hell in the hereafter even if it were to entail the loss of one's own life in this world. He said : "If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life maimed than with two hands to go into hell, where the fire never goes out. And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than to have two feet and be thrown into hell. And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell, where 'their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.' Everyone will be salted with fire. "(Mark 9:43-49)

Christ taught that to enter into Paradise and escape from Hell one would have to act righteously. In particular, he had stressed that such righteousness must not be founded on the desire for worldly recognition. Look at the advice of Jesus: "Be careful not to do your 'acts of righteousness' before men, to be seen by them. If you do, you will have no reward from your Father in heaven." (Mathew 6:1)

"... so that your giving may be in secret. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you." (Mathew 6:4)

The Messiah, who taught that even the enemy was to be loved, actually instructed the Israelites, who had lived a life in mutual animosity and conflict, in the message of love and in the way in which that message was to be the cause of moral transformation. He had advised thus, "But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven." (Mathew 5:44,45)

Christ had sought to alienate the people of Israel, who were given to conflicts and quarrels, to murders and to anger against their own brother and to abusing him, from all these misconducts by teaching that all of these were acts that could potentially lead to Hell. "You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, 'Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.' But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to his brother, 'Raca,' is answerable to the Sanhedrin. But anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell." (Mathew 5:21,22)

Christ strongly opposed adultery. Indeed, he taught that to even cast a glance upon a woman, with the intention of desire, was tantamount to having sinned. "You have heard that it was said, 'Do not commit adultery.' But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart." (Mathew 5:27,28) Here, all circumstances that may lead to adultery have come in for criticism. The fundamental reason for the decadence within the modern world wherein feminine charms have been made the objects of display is highlighted in these words of Christ made two millenniums ago.

Christ taught the masses that they were to live in accordance with the directives issued by the Lord Creator and Sustainer. He advised his followers that they were to come closer unto Him through prayer and meditation. But he had stressed that such acts should not be undertaken as a hypocritical gesture that is to be displayed in front of the people. He said that as it is the Lord Himself, who is best aware of all secrets, who confers rewards, it is meaningless to perform deeds in order that they be seen by the people.

However, Christ had taught that the belief in one God was the highest of all commandments. Observe the reply he had given to the question as to which commandment was the greatest of all. "'The most important one,' answered Jesus, 'is this: Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.'" (Mark 12:29,30)

Look at the prayer which Christ taught, "'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one." (Mathew 6:10-13)

Christ had taught that all prayer must be made to the Lord God alone. While teaching the maxim, "Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you." (Mathew 7:7) he had taught that the Father in Heaven would respond in even more generous terms to those who ask of Him. (Mathew 7:11). Indeed, in the most critical junctures in the life of that great lover of humanity, we have seen that he had always resorted only to the calling upon the one Creator alone. Observe, for instance, the occasion when he had called upon the one and only God to save him from the cross prepared by the wicked high priests of the land: "Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, 'My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.'" (Mathew 26:39)

But what is it that the Christians of today do? The majority of them are those who are involved in the act of be- seeching their saints and idols apart from the one God who created and sustains the entire universe. However, we do not see, even a single instance, wherein Christ ever called upon or consider a mediator, any of the other saintly personalities who preceded him. It is, therefore, not possible for any genuine follower of Christ, pledged as he is to the life in accordance with the life of Christ, to call upon any other than the one and only God.

How deplorable is the fact that those who actually call themselves true Christians are, in fact, themselves engaged in the worship of Christ and, therefore, in the act that is contrary to his own advises! If only those who call upon and make prayer to Lord Jesus had at least listened to the advice of that great man. "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven." (Mathew 7:21) Through these words Christ had sought to strongly criticize the act of calling him 'Lord' and to advice the people to do the will of the Father.

We have understood that Christ had preached the unadulterated faith in the one God. Indeed, all prophets right from Noah to John the Baptist had preached the same message of 'Our Lord is one Lord.' Jesus had only repeated that message. However, the church today holds as good a doctrine that was unheard of by Christ or any of his followers for that matter. That doctrine is the doctrine of Trinity.

Even if all the books of the Bible ranging from Genesis to Revelation, which stretched through the Old and New Testaments, are sifted, cross examined and studied, nowhere will there be found even a single statement to support the idea that the God Lord comprises of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. The 'Father' who is introduced in the Bible is actually the one and only, Merciful God who created and sustains this universe. The 'Holy Ghost' is but one among the creations which work in accordance with the Divine commandments. The 'Son' is but a great messenger who had come to guide the Israelites along the path of righteousness. These three are not the same; they are three distinct individualities.

What, indeed, was that emotion which had then prompted the Church to accept the doctrine of Trinity which, unlike the faith in the one God taught by all messengers appointed in the world which could easily be comprehended by the mind of man, was difficult to comprehend and was never in the original teachings of the prophets themselves?

It was four centuries after Christ that the Doctrine of Trinity was accepted as the canonical belief of the Church at the Synod of Constantinople. Up until that time the doctrine was unknown to the apostles, who were still alive, as well as to their followers. If by not accepting the doctrine of Trinity one forfeits the reward of eternal life, it will be Christ himself who will, first of all, be hurled into the fire of Hell.

It can be seen that this belief has been borrowed from the other existing perverted beliefs of the day. Indeed, the idea of three gods as well as of their union was an idea that was in vogue even before the time of Christ. Historical excavations have now made it clear that the Babylonian civilization which existed two thousand years before Christ nurtured a belief in the oneness of the three gods Ishamther, Shin and Shamesh. The Egyption civilization which existed about the same time, too, held the belief in the oneness of the three gods Horus, Osiris and Isis. According to the Palyrian beliefs that were extant in the first century after Christ, the Universe was held in balance by the union of the persons of the Moon-god, Sun-god and the god of the heavens. The Hindu belief was that the one God, Parabrahmma, resided in the three manifestations of Bhrahmav, Shiva and Vishnu. The Buddhists, too, held a belief in the three manifestations of the Divine: Vajjupani, Manjushri and Aralokitheshwaran. The Mithraists of Persia were a people who worshipped the three gods Oramasdas, Mithran and Ahirman.

The Emperor Constantine too was a religionist of such a perverted mentality. He was, in fact, one of the most cruel emperors the world had ever seen in that he had mercilessly butchered his own father-in-law, brother-in-law, nephew, wife and son. It is held that he had embraced Christianity in order that he be freed of the sins he had committed. Even so, Constantine, who readily and eagerly believed the Christian belief that all sins of the past would be forgiven once the baptism commenced, was himself baptised only on his deathbed. This implied that he had no opportunity, whatsoever, to sin again after his baptism. (Ref. T.W. Doane: The Bible Myths: Should we believe in Trinity ?, Watch tower Bible Society)

It was this Emperor Constantine who had presided over the Nicene Council in the year 325 C.E. It must thus be remembered that even while he presided over the council he had undergone no baptism himself. It was this very council that laid the basis for the acceptance of the belief that 'Christ and God are one and the same' which ultimately led the church towards the recognition of the doctrine of trinity itself. It is, therefore, not difficult to see that it was nothing but the ploy of Constantine to consolidate his own political power through the conjoining of the religion of the worship of the sun, which was prevalent in Rome, with Christianity, which had worked behind the origin of this deviation from established norms.

It was not just the recognition of the doctrine of Trinity, which had taken place at the council at Constantinople. It was at this council that the cross of light, the symbol of the Sun god, which resembled the cross on which Christ was crucified, was accepted as the symbol of Christianity itself. It was again at this very council that it was decided that December 25th, the birthday of the Sun god, would be celebrated as Christmas day and that Sunday, which was the holy day for the Sun god, would be observed as the day of the Sabbath. It was only through the exile and murder of the great,scholarly critics of the Nicene Council which approved the intermingling of these false and perverted ideas of other groups with the pristine teachings of Christ, the messenger of God, that the Church came to accept these grave distortions as canonical.

We have understood that Christ had never taught the concept of Trinity. All that he did say was that it is only the One God who is to be worshipped. He had worked many a miracle But he never claimed that he had done these to prove that he was God or that he was one in a triple God-head. He had said, "I do nothing on my own but speak just what the Father had taught me." (John 8:28)

Jesus was, indeed, a great man. A man who had endured great sacrifices for the sake of the Israelites. For that reason itself he was, doubtless, great. But the Almighty who had appointed him is much greater still. This has been stated by Christ himself: "..the Father is greater than I." (John 14:28) Here, Christ has struck at the very root of the Trinity doctrine which holds that the One God is essentially a combination of three equally powerful personalities: the father, the son and the holy ghost.

The most important gospel of Christ was this, " 'Worship the Lord, your God, and serve him only.'" (Mathew 4:10) Yes. It is only, the pure and holy Creator, the Sustainer of all life, who is to be worshipped. Krishna, Christ and the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) : all were creations; never the Creator. It is the Creator who is to be worshipped. The Almighty, All-Powerful Creator alone. This is the Gospel of Christ.

That which the Quran quotes from the words of Jesus is also the same message. "'It is Allah Who is my Lord and your Lord; then worship Him. This is a Way that is straight.'" (Quran 3:51)

Jesus had departed from this world conveying the news of the arrival of a great messenger from God who was to come after him. He said: "But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Pericletus will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. When he comes, he will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgement....

"I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come." (John 16:7-13)

The Pericletus prophesied by Jesus was born in Arabia. It was the prophet Muhammad (pbuh), who came confirming and attesting to the truth of the mission of Jesus, who taught the world concerning sin, truth, justice and law. Indeed, it was he who had guided the world unto all truth. The prophet Muhammad (pbuh), who had taught the etiquettes that were to be observed in all fields of life, was truly the follower of Christ as well as the last of the messengers. Islam is the religion that has been completed through him. He had exhorted the people to tread upon the path of Jesus and all the earlier prophets.

Accept, therefore, the prophet Muhammad (pbuh), the follower of Christ, as the messenger of God. Order life in accordance with the dictates of the Quran - the Divine book revealed to the world through him. That, and that alone, is the path to eternal salvation.

19
While the beginning of the present century marked the
rise of ideologies, its end witnessed their downfall.
We know that these ideologies which raised a lot of
hope have failed to deliver the goods. The philosophies proclaiming
Utopian dreams of a world of equality and the economic
system promising a brave new world have found its place in the
dustbin of history. Countries which once embraced these ideologies
have started throwing them out fully convinced of their
unreal and impractical nature. Both Communism and Capitalism
have practically failed, and so man is in search of an ideology
which is hundred percent practical and which can lead to the liberation
of mankind.

Men seeking the path of liberation stray into different areas.
The ultra materialists begin to learn about religion from religions
based on priesthood. Infact materialism and priestly religions are
two extremes of degeneration. While the former considers man
as a mere animal, the latter claims to elevate him to an angel. Man
who is a special creation is brought down to the level of mere
animal in the studies made by such ideologies and this has invari
bly led to the failure of these ideologies. On the other hand
priestly religions while claiming to take him to the high pedestals
of angels destroy the human aspect in him. The question of
liberation becomes quiet relevant here. No one now believes that
transfer of power from one to another will lead to liberation. All
agree that transformation of the society and country can be
effected through the individual. But the fact remains that most
people fail to define the nature of changes to be brought about in
the individual.

As we have pointed out above it is neither correct nor feasible
to treat man as a mere animal or to make him an angel. What
is necessary is that he should transform himself to a real human
being, man should be able to differentiate himself from animal.
He should be prepared to eschew evil thoughts. Basic evil characteristics
consist of pride, selfishness, chicanery, badness, cruelty,
hypocracy, petty mindedness etc. Evil actions originate from
all these. When the individuals are liberated from such evils the
society and the nation prosper. Fraternity, good behaviour, affection,
helpfulness, mercy and such qualities trigger to social transformation
which in turn liberates mankind.

It is a fact that an ideology which can liberate man from evil
and which teaches righteousness and human values alone can be
a liberating force in its true sense. The ideologies and philosophies
created by man will not be able to teach what is required
for the success of man. This is proved by the failure of the materialistic
ideologies. It means that some one who is not a man, but
knows everything about man should show the path of liberation
to mankind. It is the Creator, the Protector and the Almighty who
ably led to the failure of these ideologies. On the other hand
priestly religions while claiming to take him to the high pedestals
of angels destroy the human aspect in him. The question of
liberation becomes quiet relevant here. No one now believes that
transfer of power from one to another will lead to liberation. All
agree that transformation of the society and country can be
effected through the individual. But the fact remains that most
people fail to define the nature of changes to be brought about in
the individual.

As we have pointed out above it is neither correct nor feasible
to treat man as a mere animal or to make him an angel. What
is necessary is that he should transform himself to a real human
being, man should be able to differentiate himself from animal.
He should be prepared to eschew evil thoughts. Basic evil characteristics
consist of pride, selfishness, chicanery, badness, cruelty,
hypocracy, petty mindedness etc. Evil actions originate from
all these. When the individuals are liberated from such evils the
society and the nation prosper. Fraternity, good behaviour, affection,
helpfulness, mercy and such qualities trigger to social transformation
which in turn liberates mankind.

It is a fact that an ideology which can liberate man from evil
and which teaches righteousness and human values alone can be
a liberating force in its true sense. The ideologies and philosophies
created by man will not be able to teach what is required
for the success of man. This is proved by the failure of the materialistic
ideologies. It means that some one who is not a man, but
knows everything about man should show the path of liberation
to mankind. It is the Creator, the Protector and the Almighty who
knows better about man than man himself. So the Creator who
sustains the world and all its beings is the proper authority to
show us the path of liberation.

Islam, the Religion:

Let us find out whether any philosophy which heralds liberation
exists. There is only one philosophy that can hold its head
aloft and proclaim that it is possible to liberate mankind. That
ideology is Islam.

Islam is the ideology of liberation. Liberation means freeing
of the individual, the family, the society and the nation from evils.
This is complete and the most comprehensive liberation that comes
from Islam.

What is Islam? Is it the life pattern of a section of people
treating the mosque and its surroundings as the only world? Is it
the religion of long shirts and head gears? Is it a system of worshipping
myths borrowed from other religions giving them Arabic
names? Is it an army of soldiers wielding Qur’an in one hand
and sword in the other hand and ordering to embrace Islam or to
face death? Is it a system of law fabricated by Muhammed with a
view of putting an end to social evils of the uncultured Arabs? Or
is it a philosophy of life with the more important air of ending
miseries of this world? Islam is not any one of these. Then What
is Islam?

Islam is a religion, a religion in the full sense of the term.
Islam is introduced by God as ``Deen’’. Qur’an introduces Islam
as Deen from God. The best translation of the Arabic word `Deen’
is religion. The meaning of the term religion when applied to Is
 
lam is to be clearly understood as it is different from what secularists
and spokesmen of established religions call religion. The
western secular concept of religion that it should be confined to
the church and the rosary beads is foreign to Islam. The philosophy
of established religions that it is the duty of religions to carry
out orders of the church and the clergy does not agree with the
precepts of Islam. What Islam does is the transformation of every
field of human activity in consonance with the dictates of God.
Religion, in the sense of Islam, is all comprehensive and it covers
every aspects of human life the individual, family, society and
politics. Islam does not give license to do what ever one likes. In
other words it is improper to define Islam as a religion with its
casual meaning.

It is also not correct to bring Islam down to the level of a
mere ideology in the sense of `a way of life’. Islam is not enamoured
by such ideologies which raise hopes of charming and beautiful
world of utopian dreams. The foundation of Islam is laid on
the belief in the world to come. The concept of life that the
reward for the deeds should be available in this world itself is
entirely opposed to Islam. According to certain ideologies the idea
of life after death is not only a myth but also reactionary. According
to Marxism which was described by Freidrich Nietzche as the
philosophy of present century, the very concept of life after death
is a lethal narcotic administered on a society built on heaven on
earth. Islam views the world hereafter as a powerful instrument
capable of transforming the world and as the ultimate transformation,
answer to the entire question relating to the very existence of
man. As distinct from secular ideologies which run after worthless
lam is to be clearly understood as it is different from what secularists
and spokesmen of established religions call religion. The
western secular concept of religion that it should be confined to
the church and the rosary beads is foreign to Islam. The philosophy
of established religions that it is the duty of religions to carry
out orders of the church and the clergy does not agree with the
precepts of Islam. What Islam does is the transformation of every
field of human activity in consonance with the dictates of God.
Religion, in the sense of Islam, is all comprehensive and it covers
every aspects of human life the individual, family, society and
politics. Islam does not give license to do what ever one likes. In
other words it is improper to define Islam as a religion with its
casual meaning.

It is also not correct to bring Islam down to the level of a
mere ideology in the sense of `a way of life’. Islam is not enamoured
by such ideologies which raise hopes of charming and beautiful
world of utopian dreams. The foundation of Islam is laid on
the belief in the world to come. The concept of life that the
reward for the deeds should be available in this world itself is
entirely opposed to Islam. According to certain ideologies the idea
of life after death is not only a myth but also reactionary. According
to Marxism which was described by Freidrich Nietzche as the
philosophy of present century, the very concept of life after death
is a lethal narcotic administered on a society built on heaven on
earth. Islam views the world hereafter as a powerful instrument
capable of transforming the world and as the ultimate transformation,
answer to the entire question relating to the very existence of
man. As distinct from secular ideologies which run after worthless
dreams Islam basically calls for action to succeed in life hereafter.
Islam is not merely the religion of Muslims, nor of mosques,
or priests orassembly of priests, or of a nation. The Creator of the
universe presented the ideology of Islam for the emancipation of
man. It consists of divine laws, orders, actions and beliefs. The
individual who accepts this becomes a Muslim. Any one born of
Muslim parents does not become a Muslim by virtue of birth. If
one follows the dictates of God one is in the circle of Islam and
out of it whenever one deviates. Similarly a person born out of
nonmuslim parents becomes a muslim if he is prepared to go by
the tenets of Islam. No one is barred from getting divine protection
on account of birth. Any one who belongs to a Muslim family
will be a Muslim as long as he or she leads a life ordained by
God. A Scholar will be acceptable when he leads the society with
the help of divine sources. A country or a nation when it decides
on issues on the basis of divine ordinance will be islamic.

An ideology can be considered complete and an instrument
for transformation only when its philosophy becomes faultless
and practical. To bring forth a practical system is more difficult
than creating attractive ideologies. It is here that Islam succeeds.
Its principles are faultless, attractive and practical.

Islamic Principles:

Islamic principles are generally represented by three techni
cal terms. ``Thouheed’’, ``Risalath’’ and ``Akhirath’’. Thouheed
proclaims the unity of God which is the distinctive feature of
divine being. Risalath represents divine guidance through prophets.
Akhirath deals with death and life hereafter.



Thouheed:

Each and everything in this universe sees something beyond
it. Man is in the habit of trying to find out the cause behind everything
he comes across. He wants to know about everything in the
universe, small or big, from atoms to stars. When the cause is
found he finds himself in a position to seek further and this process
goes on and on. But this does not go on infinitely. He is thus
led to a cause which does not need any cause. That entity is the
end of all queries. All enquiry and prayers come to an end when
he reaches this be all and end all. We don’t find any phenomenon
is this universe which does not need any cause. Big and small
things alike search for cause. Then the Supreme being which does
not need a cause should not be a part of the universe. This, is
above matter, Islam calls this Supreme entity, Allah.

Islam does not teach that Allah is a mere force without a real
being or just a form of energy. Divine being is beyond any explanation
man can give. Things in the universe which owe their
existence to Allah can alone give information about Him. The
nature of His being can be understood only through divine revelation.


The view of Islam that there is something behind this universe
makes it distinct from other secular ideologies. The prejudice
of material ideology does not permit it to think of any world
other than the universe. It rests heavily on the facile assumption a
product of Newtonian physics that the universe is a machine. We
now know that the universe is not just a machine. If we want to
explain it correctly or even to understand fully, we have to go
beyond the time-space continuum. This is the view held by
modern physics. It is a fact that Einstein’s Theory or Relativity
and Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle have in effect broken the
spearhead of materialism.

Creator & Creations:

The God Islam introduces is not the one sitting in heaven
enjoying the mischief of the universe and taking rest on the seventh
day after performing the Herculean task of creating the universe
in six days. Islam does not teach that everything, all animate
and inanimate things are hidden in the being called God. It
is Allah who created the universe and He maintains it. The power
of God is behind every phenomenon in the universe. He is behind
the order and symmetry of all universal systems. The influence of
His being extends to every thing from the movements in the atom
to the attraction between stars. But he is not hiding in any one of
them. God is beyond the universe. But the power of God extends
to the entire universe. According to Islam there are two kinds of
reality, the Creator and the creations. Allah is the Creator and all
others His creations. There is no one, nothing equal to God but
His creations are also real. Islam does not agree with the ``Advaida
philosophy’’ that the universe is unreal and imaginary. The being
of Allah is complete and final. He is One, no one is like Him. He
is Omnipotent, Infallible, Greatest and Creator of the entire universe.
He is most Gracious and most Merciful endowed with most
perfect qualities and absolute. His creations which are real depends
upon him.

According to the school of thought which treats the world as
`Maya’ (unreal) creation is an unfortunate incident emanated from
`Brahmav’. If that had not happened, the world would not have
been here. In the opinion of Paul (Romer 5:12), Christianity is
founded on the assumption that all creations became sinful and
evil due to the sin of the first man. If it is so all the efforts of man
will lead him away from the straight path of God.
Islam does not approve of these two theories. Universe is the
creation as well as a gift from God. It is the realization of divine
law that is taking place in nature. The act of creation is neither a
mistake nor a mishap on the part of God. On the contrary it was
preplanned and with a great purpose. There is clear and definited
divine purpose behind the creation of everything, be it a small
rubble or giant cloud, smallest atom or biggest star, amoebae or
blue whale, animate or inanimate things. Qur’an declares that it
is not for nothing that these are created (Qur’an 21:16)
been here. In the opinion of Paul (Romer 5:12), Christianity is
founded on the assumption that all creations became sinful and
evil due to the sin of the first man. If it is so all the efforts of man
will lead him away from the straight path of God.
Islam does not approve of these two theories. Universe is the
creation as well as a gift from God. It is the realization of divine
law that is taking place in nature. The act of creation is neither a
mistake nor a mishap on the part of God. On the contrary it was
preplanned and with a great purpose. There is clear and definited
divine purpose behind the creation of everything, be it a small
rubble or giant cloud, smallest atom or biggest star, amoebae or
blue whale, animate or inanimate things. Qur’an declares that it
is not for nothing that these are created (Qur’an 21:16)


Man, a Special Creation:

Islam teaches that among all the creations of God man has
distinctive and special characteristics. He has an individuality
which is absolutely different from that of any other animate or
inanimate things. There is certainly a great purpose behind the
creation of man. Man is the `Khalifa’ on earth, the only living
being with necessary powers and independent judgement. He
can make use of the universe and influence nature as well. Quite
apart from other living beings whose existence is in accordance
with nature, man is the only creation endowed with the responsibility
of independent power of discrimination. Qur’an (33:72)
introduces man as having undertaken a great responsibility
(Amanath) which the skies, the earth and the mountains refused.

While all others in nature fulfill their obligation and carry
out divine orders man is the only creation who has been given the
freedom to accept or reject such orders. This is what is meant
when man is described as the ``Khalifa’’ on earth having been
given charge of certain responsibilities. Man gets the opportunity
to decide his own future through the constructive use of the skills
which will ensure success in life or through destructive use which
will result in failure in life.

Islam views man as one who makes history. It disagrees with
the philosophy of Marx that history makes man. Man cannot be
treated as a two legged animal destined to lead a life merely on
the basis of the laws of nature. In the eyes of Islam man is capable
of bringing about total change of history.

Divine Guidance:

As we have already learnt man who is the only living being
capable of making use of nature needs divine guidance. Utilization
of nature without divine guidance will only lead to the destruction
of mankind. Only someone superior to human stature
can tell him how to lead a human life. He knows that except the
Creator nothing among the creations is superior to himself. We
should then get guidance from the Creator. Islam teaches that all
the prophets were sent to achieve this goal ie to tell him how to
live like a man. All the prophets had come to the world for the
purpose of setting good examples for mankind by living a life on
the basis of divine instructions. `Risalath’, the technical term represents
this idea. The medium of contact between God and man
and between sky and earth is Risalath.

Islam does not teach that prophets were gods and that they
had any divinity in them. The concept of prophethood in Islam
goes against the Hindu theology of incarnation avatar according
to which God comes down to the earth and becomes a model of
what man should be. The argument that God comes down with all
the trivialities of man runs counter to the purity of Almighty God.
It is quite meaningless to suppose that God takes the form of man
and shows him how he should live. God is all powerful. He does
not need food or sexual pleasures. Even if He comes down He
can exist without food and human needs. It is not God who should
be a model to man. A representative from man should show the
practical manner in which man should live in accordance with
divine guidance.

Prophets were ordinary men in the sense that they had hunger
and thirst, sleep and rest, happiness and sorrow, wives and
children. But when hungry they were not the ones to lay their
hands on things belonging to others. They did not go for prostitution
to satisfy sexual needs. They did not revel in joy, nor did they
seek refuge in drug and liquor when sad. They did no injustice to
anyone for the sake of their wives. They did not earn wealth
through crime to bring up their offspring. They were men. Perfect
men

Prophets fulfilled their mission in different societies. With
the development of the intellectual capabilities of man slight
changes were effected in the sphere of law. But basically what all
the prophets said was the same thing. Worship only the Almighty
who created and maintains the universe and obey the prophets
send by him. Society was growing. All the prophets without any
exception through their exhortation, were predicting the advent
of a great prophet who would be model for all the human beings.
goes against the Hindu theology of incarnation avatar according
to which God comes down to the earth and becomes a model of
what man should be. The argument that God comes down with all
the trivialities of man runs counter to the purity of Almighty God.
It is quite meaningless to suppose that God takes the form of man
and shows him how he should live. God is all powerful. He does
not need food or sexual pleasures. Even if He comes down He
can exist without food and human needs. It is not God who should
be a model to man. A representative from man should show the
practical manner in which man should live in accordance with
divine guidance.

Prophets were ordinary men in the sense that they had hunger
and thirst, sleep and rest, happiness and sorrow, wives and
children. But when hungry they were not the ones to lay their
hands on things belonging to others. They did not go for prostitution
to satisfy sexual needs. They did not revel in joy, nor did they
seek refuge in drug and liquor when sad. They did no injustice to
anyone for the sake of their wives. They did not earn wealth
through crime to bring up their offspring. They were men. Perfect
men
Prophets fulfilled their mission in different societies. With
the development of the intellectual capabilities of man slight
changes were effected in the sphere of law. But basically what all
the prophets said was the same thing. Worship only the Almighty
who created and maintains the universe and obey the prophets
send by him. Society was growing. All the prophets without any
exception through their exhortation, were predicting the advent
of a great prophet who would be model for all the human beings.
Mankind was waiting for the great personality who was destined
to be model for the entire human race.

The Last Messenger:

Fortune smiled on Arabia, the fortune which witnessed the
birth of the last prophet. Mohammed was born on 29th August
570 AD to Amina and Abdulla. He grew up as an ordinary lad of
Arabia. Orphaned at an early age Mohammed earned the reputation
for being honest and simple. At the age of 25 he married 40
years old Khadeeja of a noble family, who was attracted by the
exemplary character of Mohammed. He was well known throughout
the land for the great qualities of his conduct and character and
became the darling of the family and the people till he was 40.

He got prophetood of God at the age of 40. He proclaimed
the greatest universal truth: ``Worship the one and only God Allah
who created and sustains the world. I am his prophet. Obey
me. Death which is the end of this life makes the beginning of
another life; Life hereafter. Rewards in full measure for whatever
one does in this world are awarded there. Heaven for those
who did good and hell for those who did evil. The ultimate aim
of man in this world is to achieve heaven in the other world. To
move close to that goal it is necessary to follow the precept and
practices of the prophet of God’’. This is the quintessence of his
advice.

For telling the truth Mohammed (Peace be upon Him) was
insulted and beaten up. But the people who listened to the truth
were attracted. This infuriated those who stood against truth. They
went ahead with oppression and many of Mohammed’s (PBUH)
followers were killed and other’s subjected to suppression. But

his followers did not desist from the path of truth. The prophet
and his followers were compelled to leave to leave their birthland.
They fled from their kith and kin and family to safeguard their
faith. They chose Medina as their second home. His enemies did
not leave him alone there too. Finally the prophet and his followers
were forced to resort to arms to safeguard their faith. Finally
truth triumphed. Whole Arabia lay at the feet of Islam.

The Ideal Man:

Mohammed (PBUH) is the prophet of all the people even the
last man on earth. His life, both private and public, is an open
book. The life of no other leader is recorded as in the case of
Mohammed (PBUH). If recorded, many a great man will end up
ignominiously. Look at the life of the prophet. His life from beginning
to end from bathroom to bedroom sets good example for
us to follow. He was a Muslim in every sense of the term. In
otherwords he was a perfect man in whom was embedded all the
human qualities. He didn’t claim to be a god man or demigod.
Neither did he claim to possess super human qualities. He stated
he was a Muslim. He completely submitted himself to God. It
was possible for him to become the perfect man. Even Marx was
not a Marxist. But Mohammed (PBUH) was a Muslim. He was
not the last Muslim. He was a great prophet who through his life
set an example to other Muslims.

Divine Revelation:

The Holy book sent down to humanity through Mohammed
(SA) is both a revelation of guidelines and divine signs. The prin-
ciples elaborated therein are not against the material progress of
man. But it contains guidelines needed for every field of human
activity in order to prevent him from degenerating to the level of
mere animal. It is not possible to say that any of the laws of the
Holy Book is impractical. It does not contain anything that is out
dated, Qur’an is the only book which gives right guidelines till
the dooms day. No other book which assumes the mantle of purity
can claim to be holy. Such books are written by holy men or
priests or saints. Qur’an is the compilation of divine revelations.
There is not a single sentence written by Mohammed (PBUH) in
the Holy Qur’an. Each word and even each alphabet is revealed
to him by God.

Qur ’an, The Ultimate Miracle:

When prophet Moses down it became a serpent! Jesus gave
life to the dead! These were divine signs to them to prove that
they were prophets. It ended with the fulfilment of their missions.
Their mission was of a limited nature. Contemporary people and
the lost sheeps of Israelite origin were their targets. But the divine
signs, given to Mohammed (PBUH), the prophet of all the people
upto the end of the world like his mission will last on till this date
has been able to produce even a small chapter equivalent to that
in Qur ’an. Many anti Islamic Scholars who had deep knowledge
of Arabic language and literature passed away, many are still living.
All of them are silent on the challenge thrown by Qur’an
fourteen centuries ago. The challenge of Qur’an is to write a chapter
equivalent to a small one in Qur ’an and to prove that Qur’an is
not unique. As man reaches unfathomable heights in the progress
of science and technology the infallibility, uniqueness and divin
ity of Qur ’an becomes more and more evident. The best way for
emancipation is to lead a life in accordance with the Qur’an and

the Sunna. These two alone can enlighten and guide humanity.

Life After Death:

There is a natural tendency in man to come down to the level
of lower animals-the longing to break divine ties and to follow
the footsteps of evil. Such a man does not take divine instruction
seriously. He asks, ``What purpose does it serve for a man to follow
divine instructions?’’. Yet every man dreams of a world without
evil. They really wish to have such a world. We come across
this idea in ``Utopia’’ of Thomas Moore, `City of the Sun’ of
Campanalla and `Classless Society’’ of Karl Marx. Through the
belief in the life hereafter Islam combines the desire of human
soul for a world without evil and the utilitarian theory of man. If
you do good in this transient world, you are rewarded with the
beautiful abode heaven after your death. If you do evil you get

the terrible hell. Here is the answer to the question raised by man
about the usefulness of good deeds. The great desire of man to get
the heavenly reward in the other world sans evils and difficulties
is fulfilled through the belief of world hereafter.

Shahadath:

One becomes a Muslim on accepting Allah as the only one
worthy of worship and Mohammed (PBUH) is His final messenger
and on working hard for salvation in the other world. And on
taking the Oath of entry into Islam he also becomes a member of
the group of `faithfuls’ ``Ashhadu An lailaha Illallah Va Ashhadu
Anna Mohammed Rasoolulla’ ........................................................``



I bear witness that there is no one who has right to be worshipped
except Allah and I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messen
ger of God’’. This is the oath for entering into Islam.

`La Ilaha Illallah’:

La Ilaha Illallah (.........................) ``There is no one worthy
of worship except Allah’’. The first half of the fundamental sentence
of Islam is in the negative, La Ilaha, no one worthy of worship.
All animate and inanimate things which man worshipped
are barred. The principle that is made clear is that no such things
can be worshipped whether small or big ranging from stones, idols,
pillars, tombs, plants, trees, animals, devils, angels, saints, prophets
or any other thing. All these idols are removed and after purification
of the mind the second half of the sentence ``Illallah’’
(Except Allah) is driven home. The all powerful God, the Creator
and Sustainer of the entire universe alone deserves to be worshipped
and offered anything in obeisance.

We know that among the creations of God, no one is superior
to man. There is only one entity superior to him. It is the Creator,
the Allah. Man can see so many things in him and around him
which are beyond the province of man. Man knows that his heart
beat, blood circulation or brain activity and things which sustain
his life and distinguish him from other creations are beyond his
control. He also knows that he has no power over life -sustaining
sun, revolution of earth or the set up of atmosphere. This knowl
edge makes him seek the help of someone more powerful than
and superior to him. This search for help is prayer. Patient’s request
to the doctor for treatment and servant’s request to the rich

for financial help do not come under the purview of prayer. Such
things are based on the relationship of cause and effect. Prayer is
beyond the cause and effect relationship. This prayer is worship.
Prayer is the essence of worship. That is why worship without
prayer becomes mere ritual. Then whom should we worship? The
one who created and sustains man. This is the judgement of human
intellect, the fundamental principle of Islam. The Islamic
belief of one and only God strikes at the root of the concept of
many gods which creates a wedge between man and man.
When we reach a stage in which the Greatest and the most
things are based on the relationship of cause and effect. Prayer is
beyond the cause and effect relationship. This prayer is worship.
Prayer is the essence of worship. That is why worship without
prayer becomes mere ritual. Then whom should we worship? The
one who created and sustains man. This is the judgement of human
intellect, the fundamental principle of Islam. The Islamic
belief of one and only God strikes at the root of the concept of
many gods which creates a wedge between man and man.
When we reach a stage in which the Greatest and the most
 

Superior Creator is worshipped man’s pride and abasement come
to an end. Western humanism and Marxism argued that man is the
most exalted in the whole universe and that there is no power
above him and no one exercises any control over him. This led to
the growth of a sense of pride which signalled his collapse. At the
same time the objects of worship of established religions are
stones, tombs, plants, animal, saints etc. When man submits himself
in worship to things which are inferior to him and do not even
see and hear it is natural that a sense of abasement develops in
him. It is this sense of abasement which drives him from one god
to another if he does not find refuge in one. The Islamic principle
of worshipping only the real Creator stands midway between the
pride of atheists and abasement of pantheists. This makes him
personally proud and at the same time humble.

It is not the idols, tombs, and false gods alone that crumbled
when confronted with the fundamental Islamic principle of worship
of one and only God. The priests who stood as intermediaries
between gods and men also met with the same fate. Islam clearly
teaches that there is no need for any intermediary between God
and man. The prophet saved humanity from exploitation of priests
who instigated one against the other in the name of gods.

Universal Brotherhood:

The worship of the one and only God frees man from all
sorts of pettiness and parochialism. The entire human race native
or foreigners, upper caste or lower caste, white or black, those
belonging to different castes or families, or those speaking different
languages are created and sustained by the same God, Who is
the only God and this thought does away with all sorts of
untouchability. When the above categories of people bow before
the Highest and Greatest Entity the forces which divide them are
shattered into smithereens. When the idea gets round that every
one is equal before God the false supremacy inherited by different
sections of the society evaporates. The declaration of Islam
that all men and women are the creation of the one and only God
and they are children of the same parents, transformed the people
of Arabia into a strong society at a time when they were fighting
against one another for tribal supremacy and superiority, ``O mankind!
We created you from a single (pair) of male and female and
made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other.
Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of God is the most
righteous of you and God has full knowledge and is well acquainted’’
(Qur’an 49:13). This verse from the Qur’an shattered
all vainglorious based on tribe, language and colour. Prophet said:
``An Arab is not superior to a non-Arab nor a white man to black
except in righteousness’’ (Muslim, Aboodawood). ``Your God is
one and your father is one. All are from Adam. Adam is from
soil’’ (Muslim, Aboodawood).



Free Thinking:

Worship of one God is a powerful tool which frees man from
the bonds of pantheism; and the bondage of creating gods and
their intermediaries. Belief in one God persuades man to think
and act freely. The old concept that stars are gods and goddesses
stood in the way of study of such phenomena. Those who realised
that everything in the universe is created by God can conduct
detailed study on such phenomena knowing that this is the beauty
of the powerful acts of Gods. Qur’an encourages the study of the
universe. ``Verily in the alternation of night and the day and in all
that God has created in the skies and the earth are signs for those
who fear Him’’ (Qur’an 10:6)

Mohammed Rasoolullah:

When the second part of the oath is taken we confirm that
Mohammed (PBUH) is the messenger of God. We recognize him
as the great one who spoke in accordance with the divine revelation
and led a life worthy of emulation. A Muslim who accepts
this is bound to follow the footsteps of the prophet. For him the
line dividing good and evil is the one decided by the holy Prophet
(PBUH). Duties made obligatory by the prophet will be certainly
performed by a Muslim. He will do nothing which is prohibited
by the prophet. There is a difference in avoiding liquor by a Muslim
and by a Gandhian. A Muslim does not take liquor because
the Prophet prohibited its use. A Gandhian does not take it because
it is harmful to mind and body. A definite dividing line is
drawn between good and evil only in Islam. Everything permitted
by the prophet is good and prohibited by him is evil.



Good and Evil:

Any jurisprudence that does not relate good and evil to the
life of Prophet is bound to fail. Nationalism, casteism or language
cannot deal with universal good. Neither can rationalism. The
European rationalism does not see anything wrong in extra marital
relationship and homosexuality (Barbara Smoker: Humanism
(P. 82-84). Even Mr. Idamaruku who is supposed to be the most
progressive thinker in India is not in a position to approve this.
His son in law the European traveller, Yoran Scarner writes ``They
(Idamaruku and his Wife) did not allow Geeta to come out with
me until marriage was legally registered. Indian society does not
allow premarital relationship. Even the most progressive Indian
cannot tolerate dating which is quite common in western countries’’
(Yoran Scaner: Thousand faces of India P. 29). If rationalism
is to distinguish between good and evil, the good in England
will become evil in India.
As far as Islam is concerned the words and deeds of the
prophet always remain as guidelines. We just need look into it to
ascertain what is good in anything. If we wish to distinguish between
good and evil without the help of divine revelations we
will be forced to change their definition from time to time. This is
what happened with regard to the concepts of Ahimsa and rationalism.


A clear and definited understanding of good and evil help us
to stand for good and to free ourselves from evil. This is what
happened in the history of Islam. The fact that Muslims wish to
get reward for their deeds in the world hereafter also makes them
sincere and ready for service and then showmanship or exhibi
tionism is practically eliminated. tionism is practically eliminated.

 

Existence of Religions:

The fundamental tenets of Islam consist of Thouheed, the
worship of one and the only God, the Creator of the universe unstinted
obedience to His prophet and belief in the world hereafter.
The fundamental ideologies of Thouheed, Risalath and Akhirath
(belief in the unity of God, his messengers and life hereafter) go
hand in hand with the belief in angels, and books of revelation
and the belief that good and evil emanate from God. It is this
principle that all the prophets stood for. But some followers of the
prophets acted against their teachings. Such followers were running
after the tombs of saints and false gods for their favour. They
even worshipped prophets who declared without any shadow of
doubt that no one except God should be worshipped. Prophet came
again and again to create an awareness against such tendencies
and to save humanity from the evil of polytheism. Those claimed
to be the torch bearers of traditional belief went all out against
prophets and their followers. Two groups, believers and the non
believers, were formed. This is how different religions have come
to existence. We can find the roots of all religions in the teachings
of the prophets due to this reason. The moral principles of many
of the religions are similar. Followers of religions who deviated
from the teachings of prophets should return to the divine Book
and traditions of the prophet.

Transformation of Mind and Society:

As stated earlier Islam treats man as the only creation who is
capable of creating history. Therefore Islam thinks that for the
complete transformation of society there should be real change in
individual’s mind. Islam does not agree with the fundamental principle
of some ideologies that change should first encompass the
ruling powers that be. Islam thinks that before the transformation
of the system, transformation of the people should take place.
Change of mind alone will pave the way for the real transformation
of the society. Islam lays emphasis first on the purification of
the individual. The basic building block of the family, society and
the nation is the individual. The change in him means transformation
of family, society and nation. The assessment of the
intellegentzia that Soviet Union’s collapse was due to their people
not becoming socialists along with the state confirms this line
of Islamic thinking.

Unquestionable belief in God, the resolve to prostrate only
before Him, the thought that the way to salvation is to follow the
footsteps of the prophet, that this world is merely a transient phase
and ultimate goal of life in this world is to work for peace in the
world hereafter create a very strong impact on the individual. The
awareness that Allah knows all over and covert matters and the
appropriate reward will be given in the world hereafter fot the
good and evil deeds of this world will have a salutary effect on
man from doing wrong. In case he is involved in doing wrong due
to human weakness he will repent and pray God to forgive him.
His sense of submission and sincerity will increase through total
obedience to the prophet who was sent to distinguish between
good and evil. We see such an attitude on the part of the followers
of the prophet. Worship of one and the only God, expectancy of
the world hereafter and obedience to the prophet make man really
great. There are innumerous examples.
We have Aboobacker (R.A), Umer (R.A) and Usman (R.A)
who spent their wealth for social needs; We have Yasir (R.A),
Ammar (R.A) and Bilal (R.A), great men who never lost faith
even under extreme torture, Mais ibn Malik Aslami and the lady
from Gamidiya tribe are shining examples of confessing their guilt
on their own and accepting punishment, and are incidents rare of
repentance; Anas Bin Nalr (R.A), Unai bin Hamam (R.A) and
Amri bin Jamooh (R.A), deserve special mention in the distin-
great. There are innumerous examples.
We have Aboobacker (R.A), Umer (R.A) and Usman (R.A)
who spent their wealth for social needs; We have Yasir (R.A),
Ammar (R.A) and Bilal (R.A), great men who never lost faith
even under extreme torture, Mais ibn Malik Aslami and the lady
from Gamidiya tribe are shining examples of confessing their guilt
on their own and accepting punishment, and are incidents rare of
repentance; Anas Bin Nalr (R.A), Unai bin Hamam (R.A) and
Amri bin Jamooh (R.A), deserve special mention in the distin-



guished gallery of prophet’s followers in the matter of selfless
service for the cause of Islam who jumped into the battle field
and became martyrs enjoying the sweet smell of heaven. Abu
Hudana (R.A) can be treated as a representative of affection of
the followers, towards the prophet-a great figure who shielded
the prophet with his own body, arrows piercing through his flesh.

How many such examples! Belief in God and the world hereafter,
affection and the obedience to the prophet elevate men to
heights of glory. These qualities made them courageous and torchbearers
of selfless service. The habit of submission to God made
them proud. They were not enamoured of the worldly
enchancements. They were not prepared to bow their heads before
anybody. The words of Ja’far (R) to the priests who asked
him to bow before Emperor Najjashi are significant. ``We the
Muslims never kneel before anyone, but God’’.

Muslim Family:

The purification of the individual leads to progress and
strengthening of family. Marriage is the foundation of Islamic

family ties. Islam does not recognize any sexual relationship except
through marriage. For martial relationship, in the view of
Islam, moral character gets precedence over beauty, wealth and
family.

Islam believes that only couples of sound moral character
can produce a strong family. Everybody agrees that for happy and
peaceful family life sound moral character is a must. Loose moral
character and free sexual relationships, a contribution of western
culture have led that society to its ruin. Statistics show that more
than half of the new born babies in big cities are illegitimate. The
family system is in it’s death bed in the west (Willian Frenkel.
The family in perspective, Chapter: 5). The position in communist
countries is in no way better. The ``Manifesto’’ declares that
family and morality are prejudices of bourgeoisie. We can just
imagine the moral characteristics of a nation built on such ideology.
Even before the ``Glassnost’’ the world knew that majority
of the youth in Soviet Union were in the habit of involving themselves
in extramarital or premarital sex. This accelerated the destruction
of the family system there. This means that the dignity
of the family in its full sense is existing only in the Islamic world.
This is due to clear and sound Islamic laws of morality.

Marriage in Islam :

Marriage in Islam is the ceremony in which the father
entrusts his daughter with her consent to the bridegroom who
accepts her. Islam orders that man (bridegroom) should give
women (bride) the obligatory present (Mahr) at the time of marriage.
Islam has nothing to do with the dowry system according to
which bride’s father gives money and other valuables to the bride
groom. Such a dowry system is unIslamic.

Qur’an introduces the family relationship that is formed after
marriage as a sacred and a divine sign of God (Qur’an 80:21).
groom. Such a dowry system is unIslamic.
Qur’an introduces the family relationship that is formed after
marriage as a sacred and a divine sign of God (Qur’an 80:21).



The holy prophet used to exhort his followers to strengthen this
relationship. But you will not find any provision in Islamic law
banning dissolution of marriage under any circumstance. It is permitted
in unavoidable situations. The prophet said ``Dissolution
of marriage is the most hated among matters permitted’’.

Islam delegates different but complimentary duties to man
and woman. Maintaining the home and bringing up children come
under the purview of women while, protection of home and earning
livelihood go to man. Islam which recognizes and respects
motherhood gives the entire responsibility of subsistence of woman
to man. Both man and woman have rights and duties (Qur’an
2:228). Each one should fulfill his or her duties and recognize the
rights of others. This is the way to have strong family ties.

Islamic Dress:

Islam gives top priority to morality. It despises extra marital
relationship. Islam wants to eliminate the circumstances that lead
man to entertain bad thoughts. That is why Islam insists that woman
should not make her beauty an object of exhibition. She should
not show up any part of her body except face and forearms to
other men (Qur’an 33:33). Pornography, naked posters, cinemas
and other media in which woman is treated as a source of income
lead to degeneration of human values.

The verdict of the entire lot of social scientists makes the
injuctions of Islam clearer and more valid. But Islam does not say
that woman should confine herself in thin the four walls of the
harem or of her house. It is just ridiculous to argue that her Islamic
dress will isolate her from the society. The dress does not
stand in the way of her various social activities. Moreover there
are many examples of her great service during the last fourteen
centuries. The young ladies among followers of the prophet were
the first set examples. Ayisha (R.A), Asma (R.A) and Fathima
(R.A) were members of that respectable society. Among them were
scholars, advisors and those who fought wars. Even now there
are several women working in various fields including science
and technology wearing Islamic dress and not the indecent attire
of the society ladies.

Dignity of Women:

Islam supports woman’s dignified behaviour and shyness. It
is Islam which declared that woman like man has the right to live
and recognized that she has not only duties but also rights. She
has right of inheritance from her father’s wealth. Islam gave opportunity
for woman to acquire knowledge and to develop intellectually.
Being frail she needs protection which Islam provides.

Sacredness of motherhood is recognized. Prophet said, ``Heaven
is at the feet of mother’’. Her beauty is not for sale. It should be
properly covered and can be displayed only to her husband. Islam
made her dignified and proud.

Parents and Offsprings:

There are clear laws governing parents and their children giving
them proper guidance in moral values and health. During old
age of the parents it is the duty of their offspring to treat them
kindly and fulfill their life needs.

Emancipation of Society:

Life on the basis of injunction of Islam is a sine qua non for
the proper development of the individual and for the progress and
emancipation of the society. No one including critics of Islam
could prove that anything described as good by Qur’an and the
Sunnath could lead to deterioration. Honesty, affection, selfless
service, respect, humility, Justice etc..... which are the qualities to
be developed in the individual will have tremendous influence on
man. These teachings of Islam and the consequent changes in man
will bring about the creation of an unblemished and pure social
order.

This is true with regard to the good deeds Islam teaches man
to carryout. The individual, family, social and political life of a
Muslim who considers upholding justice an obligation will also
be founded on justice, Therefore the sense of justice of an individual
will bring about great changes in the society. If the people
are taught that it is the responsibility of a Muslim to protect the
orphans and the poor, the society in which they live will do their
best to find a solution to problems of such helpless sections. There
will be very little likehood of any family problem arising in a
society members of which were taught that women have rights
and responsibilities as in the case of men. Members of a society
considering liberation of slaves a great thing will be sincere in
their efforts to do away with slavery. Members of a society who
are aware of the Islamic teaching of righteousness will rationally
be good cultured and liberated and good.


Let us look into the deeds which Islam prohibits. There is no
difference of opinion on the point that alchoholism will result in
the ruin of the individual, family and society. Prostitution, everybody
agrees will invite deadly diseases, destroy family ties and
eventually will become a thorn in the flesh of the society. The
problem created by robbery and murder are too well known to
need any elaboration. Scandals, false propaganda and attempt to
malign others will cause social hiatus and degeneration will
affect the very foundation of the society. Nobody has so far been
able to prove that those things that Islam prohibited are necessary
for the progress of human race.

Social Laws:

Islam presents humanity with powerful social laws. Such laws
are based on the fundamental Islamic ideology of Thouheed. Man
obeys these laws in the light of his awareness that he is only one

of the creation of the Greatest who created and sustains the entire
universe. The awareness that humanity is the offspring of the same
parents inspires man to sacrifice his selfishness for the sake of
society.

Islamic Science:

Right and wrong in the fields of science can be distinguished
with the help of Islamic teaching in respect of the universe and
the man. Man is the Khalifa on earth with freedom to manage
things. The nature is the field where he can grow, progress and
enjoy the bounty of God. But Islam does not permit him to destroy
or unscrupulously exploit nature leading to an irretrievably
collasping ecological balance. Islam permits man to utilize sun,


moon, stars, oceans, land and mountains for his needs and moon, stars, oceans, land and mountains for his needs and
enjoyments and for thinking. It’s misuse over consumption and
any attempt that harms the interests of the fellow beings are pro


hibited. Islam encourages research and experiments. It tells him
also that the research and experiments should not lead to misuse
or disfigurement of nature.

Islamic Economics:

The bounties of earth were created for man. Qur’an exhorts
man to scatter through lands and seek his bounty. Every man has
the right to seek the bounty of God and to use the products of
nature. Islam does not limit this right to any particular section,
nobody can deny the right of others to use nature. Everybody has
equal right to work and earn. But the right to earn does not empower
any one to deny similar rights to others or to exploit others.
Similarly when man is engaged in production using nature’s bounty

he should realize that it is the right of God and he can not exploit
in a harmful way. In the absence of such a realization those people
into whose heads the responsibility of industrialization has
gone too far are adopting the cheapest means to find outlet for
disposing of industrial waste and this in turn creates environmental
problems affecting the very existence of plants, animals and
even man himself.

Islam inspires man to produce maximum. Individual has the
right to produce and also to earn wealth. His earnings belongs to
him but it should be earned only through fair means and by obeying
moral laws. It does not belong to the society or the country.
But he should be prepared to spend from his earning for the society
and the nation. It is his responsibility. The thinking that what-
 

ever he earns does not belong to him has contributed to the decline
of production in communist countries. The basis of capitalism
is that the wealthy individual thinks that he can spend his
money which ever way he likes. Islam rejects both the approaches
but recognizes the right of the individual to earn and teaches him
that it is his responsibility to spend from his earnings in a dignified
manner.

Islam permits business but prohibits interest; recognizes profit,
bans hoarding excessive profit making and underhand dealings.

There should be no ground for exploitation. It should be clean
and open. Islam prohibits capturing market by covering up product
defect. It discourages idle life. Only bad elements will mindlessly
spend from inherited wealth. The concept of `Zakath’ in
Islam removes idleness from such people and persuades them to
invest in productive areas.

Zakath:

It is the responsibility of the society to protect destitute and
the disabled who cannot support themselves. The idea of Zakath
was implemented by Islam for this purpose. The rule is that a
percentage of his wealth should be spent. This is an obligation.
Zakath is not a favour of the right but the rich of the poor. Zakath
is not the money thrown away to the poor by the rich. Zakath is
what the nation, society or authorised body collects from the rich
and distributes among the poor and deserving. If we come forward
to implement the concept of Zakath in the way Islam stipulates
the problem of poverty in the world will be resolved almost
entirely. History has recorded an instance in which there was no
body in the Islamic states to revive Zakath and then it was distributed
in the neighbouring countries.
Zakath is compulsory. Islam considers this as purification of
wealth and it is the responsibility of the rich to help the poor.
Prophet had ordered to give alms. Such optional financial help is
body in the Islamic states to revive Zakath and then it was distributed
in the neighbouring countries.
Zakath is compulsory. Islam considers this as purification of
wealth and it is the responsibility of the rich to help the poor.
Prophet had ordered to give alms. Such optional financial help is



`Sadaqa’ in Islamic terminology.

Employer-Employee Relationship:

Agriculture, industry and production go hand in hand with
employers and employees. Islam accepts this as natural. But it
does not say that employer-employee relationship should be one
of confrontation. Prophet emphasized sanctity of doing work. We
are taught that ``What the labourer gets by doing work is the best
of all earnings’’ (reported by Ahmed). ``God likes his slave who
is a labourer and has affection for him. The labourer who gets
tired on doing work for his family is like a man who fought in the
path of the Almighty and the Greatest Allah’’ (Ahmed). Islam
orders that labourer should be paid wages which he deserves.
Before commencing the work, there should be an understanding
between the employer and the employee and the latter’s wages be
paid before his sweat dries out. The employer who does not pay
wages to his employee will be enemy of God on the Day of Reckoning
(Bukhari). The prophet who gave such instructions was restraining
the employer from exploiting the employee. Similarly
Islam wants the employee to be sincere in the work he does.

Islamic Politics:

Political activity is not taboo to a Muslim in a multi religious
secular country if he observes the injuctions of Islam. There should
be no deviation from the path shown by the Prophet, and it should
be based on the belief in God and the World hereafter. The secular
view that politics has nothing to do with religions and moral
values is foreign to Islam. The individual who is engaged in
political activity either in Islamic or other States should not go
astray from religious and moral values. A muslim is not allowed
to resort to corruption, nepotism, treachery and exploitation
under this disguise of political activity.

Islamic Nation:

A country becomes Islamic not through coup deetat or terrorism.
On the countrary it is through the transformation of the
mind of the ruled. In the Islamic country the ruler and the ruled
believe in the ultimate and final authority of the Almighty God
and in the World hereafter. The guiding principle in their life is
the belief that any injustice done here will invite appropriate punishment
in the World hereafter. In such a society there is very
little likelihood of wrong being committed. Islam awards severe
punishment to those indulging in wrong deeds even after all loopholes
for committing crimes have been closed.

It is necessary to obey the ruler as long as he does not violate
divine injuctions. Prophet said ``Obedience is in righteousness,
not in evil’’ (Bukhari, Muslim). Islam does not teach that the injustice
of a ruler should be tolerated. History records so many
instances in which ordinary people questioned the rulers when
they found that the rulers were erring. The society of those times
was taught that telling the truth in the face of the bad ruler is the
greatest jihad.



This is Islam, complete submission before the Almighty Creator,
the great ideology that renders possible social revolution
through the transformation of the individual. Its observances are
practical ways to achieve the goals. Five times prayer desists him
from doing wrong. Zakath makes him humane and hard working.
Fasting enhances his willingness to submit himself to God. Hajj
enthuses him to the divine path. Only such individuals can transform

20
Allah Almighty and the Perfect Monotheism / CONCEPT OF GOD IN ISLAM
« on: February 04, 2013, 02:02:53 AM »
Man is in a never ending search for the cause behind all
that exist in this Universe-right from the sub automic
particles to the gigantic stars and unfathomable depths
of galaxies and things beyond the bowl of night. But every time a
cause is found it so emerges out that there still remains a cause
behind that cause. This search goes on and on. But it does have an
end-when man reaches a `cause’ which does not have to have a
cause, a superior being without cause-ie., a causless cause. That
causeless cause is the end of man’s inquiry. In other words man’s
search for a cause ceases at this point. We do not find in this
universe any materialistic phenomenon without a cause. So it turns
out that the causeless superior being must be outside this Universe
and beyond material existence. Islam calls this primary
causeless cause behind all small and big, micro and macro phenomena
in the universe Allah!
But Islam does not teach that `Allah’-this causeless cause is
some conventional form of force or simple ordinary energy. The
real essence of God is beyond man’s comprehension and description.
Man knows the essence of that Divine being only through
His own divine revelations. However, the materialistic objects in
this universe reveal and testify His ominiscience and omni pote
nce. The Holy Qur’an exhorts man to realise this fact through
reason-unbiased and rational free thinking
``Do they not look at the camels
How they are made?
And at the sky,
How it is raised high?
And at the mountains,
How they are fixed firm?
And at the Earth.
How it is spread out?’’ (Al Ghashiyah: 17-20)
The Qur’an commands man to realize the Great Power
behind the wonderful design of the universe by discerning the
surrounding nature. During the middle ages the Church’s strictures
prohibited reason as it would lead to atheism. Islam does
not subscribe to this view. Qur’anic verses teach man to make
best use of his eyes, ears and brain to see, hear and think.
There is not even a single verse in Qur’an which restricts man
from following reasons. As a matter of fact there is no other book
which invokes human intelligence in such an inspiring manner.
The Quranic verses urging man to think and learn from nature
and realize the invincibility of the Supreme Being, are thoughtprovoking
to a lay man as well as a scientist.
Human being
The first verses revealed to prophet (S.A) command:
``Proclaim! (or Read!),
In the name of the Lord
And Cherisher
Who created man, out of
A leech-like clot’’ (Al Alaq: 1-2)
These lines incite man to think freely about himself. He was
nothing a few years back-just two unknown insignificant entities
fused together-first part, one out of millions of spermatazoa of
the father’s semen and the second, an ovum produced from the
mother’s womb to form the embryo. It grew to form a little mass
of flesh. Inside the flesh bones started taking shape. Then the
skeletal from started building up. The bones of the skeletal system
were then covered by muscles. Then eyes, ears, nose, arms,
legs and head grew at different rates in different proportions.
Finally one fine day this great man appeared on Earth’s surface,
in flesh and blood from inside his mother’s womb, absolutely helpless,
as one in crores. Then began his struggle for life!
Human body has various systems which are interconnected.
All these systems viz., skeletal, cardio-vascular, renal, reproductive,
digestive, nervous, respiratory, endocrine & Excretive, function
involuntarily.
The same power which caused the fusion of ovum in to the
male sperm, its step by step transformation into a foetus, then into
a child and then to a full fledged human being, has also designed
and laid out the most sophisticated, perfectly functional systems
inside the body. From layman living aimlessly to the scientist investigating
into the intricacies of human metabolism share alike
the abundance of the Creator’s blessings. The Qur’an asks man:
``How can you reject
The faith in Allah?
Seeing that you were without life
And He gave you life’’ (Al Baqarah: 28)
The Qur’an reveals the secrets of man’s birth:
``Man We did create
From a quintessence (of clay)
Then We placed him
As (a drop of) sperm
In a place of rest
Firmly fixed
Then We made the sperm
into a clot of congealed blood,
Then of that clot We made
A (foetus) lump, then We
Made out of that lump
Bones and clothed the bones
with flesh; then we developed
Out of it another creature
So blessed be Allah
The Best to create!’’ (Al Mu’minun: 12-14)
The Qur’an asks man again:
``Do you then see?
The (human seed) that
You throw out
It is you who create it
Or are We the creator?’’ (Al Waqiah: 58,59)
Arrangements for the Survival:
The Creator has arranged every thing that is required in this
world for survival of a new born baby. When it cries that throat
doesn’t get dried up; its body temperature is kept under control;
the water content of the body is automatically regulated; oxygen
is breathed in and carbon dioxide is breathed out-and so many
such intricate and complicated body functions are designed and
regulated by our Creator. The mother herself carries the perfectly
balanced diet for the offspring. There is nothing to beat breastmilk.
It contains all nutrients and antibodies and antibodies required
for body growth and building up immunity against diseases.
The Cattle:
As this child grows up on breast feeding he finds other sources
around him for food-the most important being the milk of cattle,
which is consumed even by the grown up due to its nutrition value.
Cow milk contains 87.2 % water, 3.7 % fats, 4.9 % sugar, 3.5 %
vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. And who has designed such
a wonderful but highly complicated set up in cattle essential for
human survival? It is none other than the Creator Lactic researcher
and the layman have the same answer. The Quran points out:
``And in cattle (too) you
Have an instructive example
From within their bodies
We produce (milk) for you
To drink, there are in them
(Besides) numerous (other)
Benefits for you
And of their (meat) you eat’’ (Al Mu’minun: 21)
``And verily in cattle (too)
Will you find an instructive sign
From what is within their bodies
Between the excretion and blood
We produce for you drink
Milk, pure and agreeable
To those who drink it’’ (Al-Nahl: 66)
Green World:
Look around us and ponder over the beautiful greenery of the
vast plant kingdom on which our very existence is centred. We
realize the ingenuity of the Creator. Green leaves are earth’s food
producing factories. Their roots draw in water and manure from
the earth which is then `pumped’ up the stem to the leaves at the
tips of the branches. They in turn absorb Carbon-dioxide from the
surrounding atmosphere. In the presence of sunlight all these constituents
on the green leaves get converted into glucose through a
miraculous process known as `Photosynthesis’. Glucose is the
basic food element for plants and animals.
During Photosynthesis CO2 let out by animals including man
is absored by plants and in turn they let out oxygen required for
animals. Thus a complimentary service takes place between animals
and plants for mutual co-existence. The farmer and the botanist
feel the existence of a Superior Entity behind the plant life.
The Qur’an asks:
``See ye, the seed that
You sow in the ground
Is it you that cause it
To grow or are We
The cause?’’ (Al-Waqiah: 63, 64)
The farmer doesn’t have any roll in the growth process of the
plant after sowing the seed up to its growth. The plant grow according
to the `instruction’ recorded in the gene structure of the
plant cell. This set up is purely divine as the Quran reminds man:
``With it He produces
For you corn, olives,
Date palms, grapes,
And every kind of fruits.
Verily in this is a Sign,
For those who give thought’’ (Al-Nahl:11)
Nature is equipped with all that is necessary for the survival of
plants and animals.
The Earth and its arrangements:
The Earth rotates around its own axis which is inclined by
23.50. This inclination causes seasons and climatic changes essential
for agriculture. Water is an inevitable pre-requisite for life
on earth. This is obtained from ponds, rivers and oceans `steaming’
under the sun. The condensed steam gets accumulated around
dust particles to form droplets which fall down to form what we
know as rain. Thus there is an extremely complicated and lengthy
process which ultimately ends up in rain showers. It is unique to
earth as per the latest scientific investigations. A farmer and a
climatologist have the same understanding about rain that is helpful
in keeping life on earth and it is a special design by a Superior
Being. Even the frightening lightening bolts accompanying the
rain is a great blessing in disguise for farmers.
During lightning the atmospheric nitrogen is converted into
nitrogen compounds in soil which can easily be absorbed and assimilated
directly by plants. Reports indicate that the nitrogen
compounds thus converted per year amounts to approximately
100 million tonnes. This figure is more than 10 times the annual
world production of fertilizers.
The Quran says that rain and thunder showers are signs of a
Superior Power;
``And among His signs,
He shows you the lightning,
By way both of fear
And of hope and He sends
Down rain from the sky,
And with it gives life to
The earth after it is dead
Verily in that are signs
For those who are wise’’ (Al Rum:24)
The canopy of heavens
Earth’s atmosphere provides a miraculous protection for life
to exist on earth. The ozone layer of Earth’s stratosphere filters
out ultraviolet rays and other harmful cosmic rays, thus setting
and controlling atmospheric condition on earth’s surface suitable
for life forms to thrive. Besides, the atmospheric air offers very
high resistance to the meteorites falling down at tremendous velocities.
Due to this resistance they burn out before they touch the
earth’s surface. Thus the atmosphere is a real protective canopy
above us providing a vast defensive mechanism. Man who lives
under this vast canopy is urged by the Quran to think about such
amazing protective designs set above him. The Qur’an teaches us:
`Who has made the earth your couch
And the heavens your canopy
And sent down rain from the heavens
And brought forth therewith
Furits for your sustenance
Then set not up rivals unto Allah
When you know (the truth)’’ (Al Baqarah: 22)
Honey bee, an example:
Each living being is a sign of its Creator’s ingenium. Take for
example bee, the expert civil engineer among insects. They build
strong multichambered houses with wax and least amount of effort.
Scientists have never stopped wondering at the hexagonal
accuracy of the inner chambers of bee hives. Management experts
are surprised at the way in which they practice the principle
of division of labour. Different classes of bees are entitled with
collection of honey, building hives, safe-guarding them and reproduction.
Each class perform their duties with religious accuracy
and devotion. The communication methods they employ are
still more amazing. Bees which hunt for honey inform other bees
about the location in a particuliar manner of dance called `waggle
dance’. The shapes and sizes of these angles and circles represent
and communicate the complete details of the location of honeydistance,
direction, quantity and quality.
And it is an established fact that honey has wonderful medici-
nal properties. But it is not the bee which has provided these prope
rties since its brain is too small. Who else has supplied the bee with
these powers? The Creator Himself and no on else. The Qur’an
reveals:
``And your Lord taught the Bee
To build its cells in hills
on trees and in (men’s) habitations
Then to eat of all the produce (of the earth)
And find with skill the spacious
Paths of its Lord, there issues
From within their bodies
A drink of varying colours
Where in is healing for men
Verily in this is sign
For those who think’’ (Al Nahl: 68,69)
This is true with any living being-on land, water and skies.
Thus God’s presence can be felt in every creature every where.
``And Allah has created
Every animal; from water
Of them there are some
That creep on their bellies
Some that walk on four
Allah creates what He wills
For verily Allah has power
Over all things’’ (Al Nur:45)
Wondering Heavens:
From time immemorial man has been looking at the sky wondering
about the sun, the moon and the stars which eventually
have become a part of his life in many ways. To the ancient man
sunrise and sunset were intriguing experiences occuring every
day. But to the modern man it is the tremendous nuclear explosion
inside the solar mass is bewildering. The sun weighs 703.1
billion kgs. Per m3. The temperature at the centre is estimated to
be 6.5 million degrees Celcius and the pressure 70.3 tonnes per
cm2. Nuclear fusion is the basic process inside the mass of sun
that generates tremendous solar energy which is the source of
energy for the whole solar system. The energy thus generated in a
second is equivalent to thousands of Hydrogen bomb explosions.
It approximately amounts to 1025 Joules. (This is more than the
energy required for Earth for a period of 10000 years). Sun is just
one star among millions in the galaxy called Milkyway. It is situated
32000 light years away from the centre of Milkyway. Sun
revolves around this centre in circular path at speed of 250km/
sec. It takes 250 million years or one Cosmic year for completing
one such revolution. Modern science tells us that the sun, the
milkyway, etc... are all moving in definite paths. Thus the more
we learn about the cosmic system the more we understand the
creative ingeniun of Allah Almighty.
The Qur’an points out to this fact:
``And the sun runs its course
For a period determined
For it, that is
The decree of (Him)
The exalted in might
The all-knowing’’ (Yaseen: 38)
``It is He who created the Night and the Day
And the Sun and the Moon
All (the celestial bodies)
Swim along, each in its
Rounded course’’ (Al Ambiya:33)
Address of Human being
Man who realizes where he stands in this wide expanse of the
universe will definitely prostrate in front of its creator. A universe
filled with millions of clustres, each clustre consisting of
millions of galaxies and each galaxy studded with millions of trillions
of stars, pulsars, quasars, nebulae and black holes! And our
sun just a tiny star in the Milkyway stretching across the sky, one
among millions of falaxies. This Sun is 1.35 millions times bigger
than earth in volume. The milky way contains stars which are
thousands and thousands times bigger than our sun which is just a
medium sized star in the Milky way. Nine planets revolve around
the sun. Besides there are a lot many satellites, comets, dwarf
planets, meteorites, etc... in the solar system. Earth is one among
the 9 planets. And Man is just one among millions of species or
earth. Each one of us is just on among crores and crores of such
men. But the protection offered to this `tiny’ and `unimportant’
human being, other species, the earth, the planets, milkyway, galaxies,
etc. are the same. That means the same `commander’ protects
and controls them all. We realize how inferior our powers
are and that we are just nothing in this universe. The ultimate
realization forces us to lower our heads down in front of the Al
mighty Creator. The Qur’an precisely points out to this truth:
``Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the Earth
In the alternation of the Night and the Day
In the sailing of ships through the ocean
for the benefit of mankind
In the rain which Allah sends down from the skies
And the life which He gives therewith
To an Earth that is dead;
In the beasts of all kinds that He scatters
Through out the Earth:
In the change of the winds,
And the clouds which trail like their slaves
Between the sky and the Earth
(Here) indeed are Signs
For a people that are wise’’ (Al Baqarah: 164)
The Qur’an invokes human intelligence in Al -A’raf:
Do they see nothing, the government of the heavens
And the Earth and all, that Allah has created?
(Do they not see) that, it may well be that
Their term is nigh drawing to an end?
In what message after this,
Will they then believe?’’ (Al A’raf: 185)
``Allah created the heavens
And the earth in true (proportions)
Verily in that is a sign
For those who believe’’ (Al’ Ankabut: 44)
When the Qur’an teaches us to learn about the creator by looking
at ourselves and the surrounding nature. It does not advocat
blind faith. The Qur’an invokes human beings to use their intelligence.
The amazing control and order which surrounds the micro
and macro world of animate and inanimate beings are pointed
out. Thus The Holy Qur’an leads man to truth-the Absolute Truth.
Oneness of God:
The Holy Qur’an which points out to the hands of God, the
Supreme Creator, in the amazing universal phenomena, uses the
same objects for establishing the absurdity of polytheism. Every
system in the human being is related to each other. Similarily it is
a well known fact that various species are related to each other.
There are many small and big animals which coexist mutually.
Plants and animals depend on each other for existence. The Earth’s
living environment is designed in such a fashion that neither of
the two Kingdoms- animals and plants-can exist in the total absence
of the other. This co-ordinated orchestration of life on earth
cannot be achieved by different creators. Then this kind of mutual
dependence would not have been possible. The creator of
animals would have his own way of control and the creator of
plants would have had a different one. Qur’an points out to the
harmony existing in nature through the following verse:
``No son did Allah beget,
Nor is there any god along with Him;
(If there were many gods), behold, each god
Would have taken away what he had created,
And some would have loaded it over others!
Glory to Allah! (He is free)
From the sort of things, they attribute to Him!’’
(Al Mu’minum:91)
This harmony is felt every where in the Universe. Entering in
to the micro-level world of atoms one can see the amazing structure
of inter dependance between electrons, protons, neutrons,
mesons and positrons. It is true in the case of the macro world
too. This uniform structure of universal laws governing the cosmic
phenomena indicate that these are all creations of the one and
the same creator. The harmony and co-ordination would just not
have been possible if there were more than one creator. If we
accept Einstein’s theory that universal phenomena are basically
the result of space time curvature due to gravity, we would be
forced to accept the existence of a single creator, who brought all
this universe under a single law. Einstein postulated that not even
a single substance in this world existed outside the limits of this
law.
If all planets and stars had seperate creators they would have
all got destroyed by collision. If there had been more than one
Supreme being controlling this Universe titanic clashes between
their interests would have ended up in the total destruction of the
Universe. The Qur’an again points to this fact:
``If there were, in the heavens and the earth
Other gods besides Allah,
there would have been ruin in both!
But glory to Allah, the Lord of the Throne:
(High He is) above what they attribute to Him’’
(Al Ambiya: 22)
Allah is the all knowing sole Creator, Protector and Controller
of the entire universe. It is not a name assigned to a tribal cheif or
head of a clan. It is the name assigned to God of all tribes, country
men, castes and races. Different names are used by different people
to point out this Supreme Entity. The words `Para-brahmam’
or `Paramathma’ are used in Upanishads to devote this Supreme
Power. In Old Testament El Elohim. El Sheddai, El Elion, Adonoi,
Yah, Jeho- vah etc., are assigned to God. Since the teachings of
Jesus are not written in his mother tongue Aramic language the
exact form of God name he used is not known. However Bible
experts argue that it was Elohim. The Holy Qur;an uses the word
Allah to address the Supreme Creator. Linguists say that the word
means one who really deserves all prayers and worships. Others
say that there is no equivalent work in any other form. In any case
the word used do not indicate God of a particular race or creed.
The Qur’an does not use the word in that sense.
The Essence of God:
Matter is the building material of this Universe. Multiplicity
is a basic nature of matter. The search for a fundamental substance
has led scientists to the conclusion that nothing exists which
can be called a single or fundamental substance. Elements join in
different proportions to form various substances. Atoms from
molecules. Atom consists of electrons, protons, neutrons, mesons
and positrons. They were thought to be the fundamental particles.
Later it was discovered that they were made up of quarks which
don’t have independant existence. Thus there is nothing in this
materialistic world which can be called a fundamental substance
or a particle. This is attributed to multiplicit is the fundamental
character of matter, by scientists. It is Allah the Creator of matter
and the universe who can be described as single in all respects.
Since He is beyond the definition of matter it is unlike His nature
and essence that He exhibits multiplicity. That means He is the
one. The Qur’an stresses this fact unequivocally in Al-Ikhlas the
pivotal chapter of Quran:
``Say He is Allah, the one and only
Allah, the Eternal Absolute,
He begetteth not, Nor is He begotten,
And there is none like unto Him’’ (Al-Ikhlas: 1-4)
Man has a lot of limitations, basically he acquires knowledge
through senses. The human brain processes informations collected
through the five senses. It is a well known fact that human sense
have a lot of limitations.
Human eye can see light only within a range of wave lengths
from 380 to 780 millimicrons. The ultraviolet rays, X-rays, infrared
rays and cosmic rays which are emitted at wavelengths above
or below this range are not visible for human eyes. Human ear
can listen to sound waves within a frequency range of 20 Hz. to
20,000 Hz. Sound waves beyond these limits are not audible to
human ear. So also is the case with taste, smell etc. So it turns out
that, since human senses have limitations the brain also must have
limitations. That means we can think only about this materialistic
world. Human brain is incapable of thinking beyond the materialistic
world and creating images and performing calculations outside
its limits.
It was already pointed out that Allah is beyond matter and
hence limitations of materials are not applicable in His case. Human
brain is incapable of arriving at conclusions and deductions
on his own about God. Because it is all beyond limits of his senses.
Human brain which is with in space-time limits can not visualize
the Supreme being beyond space-time limits. The Qur’an verse
given below indicates this:-
``No vision can grasp Him
But His grasp is over all vision
He is above all comprehension
Yet is acquainted with all things’’ (Al-Ana’s: 103)
This verse indicates that materialistic perception and observation
are not sufficient to fathom Allah, who is beyond matter.
Islam doesn’t present a picture of a tired God who just as anybody
takes rest from the 7th day onwards, after laborious work of
creation of the Universe. Qur’an and Prophet (SA) teach us that
Allah’s mighty power and control are absolutely necessary behind
each and every phenomenon-be it the micro level process of
splitting of a gene cell or the titanic clashes of star.
``His throne does extend over the heavens
And the earth.
And He feels no fatigue in guarding and
Preserving them
For He is the most high
The supreme (in glory)’’ (Al-Baqarah: 255)
The God Islam presents is not just a form of energy. Islam
teaches that He possesses all powers and never dies.
``And put the trust in Him who lives and dies not;
And celebrate His praise and enough is He
To be aquainted with the faults of His servants’’
(Al-Furqan: 58)
``This is so because Allah is the Reality,
It is He who gives life to the dead
And it is He who has power over all things’ (Al Hajj:6)
Creator and Creations:
Islam does not subscribe to the idea that this universe is just an
illusion. It is real, but it is just a creation which has a beginning
and an end. According to the theory that Universe is just an illusion
it does not need a creator behind it. But the Holy Quran says
that it has a Supreme Creator and all the creations are proclaiming
His purity and truth.
``Whatever is in the heavens and on earth
Let it declare the Praises and glory of Allah,
For He is the exalted in might, the wise’’ (Al Hadid:1)
The preposition that the Creator and the creations are one and
the same is another side of the same coin. islam reaffirms that this
theory is absurd and baseless. The essence of Allah is distinct
from His creations. The God Qur’an present is not one whose
entity is spread over in all His creations. If that be so He has to
have limitations partially. But He is beyond all nature ie., His
essence is distinct from nature. But His knowledge and power
contain and include all things. From the feeblest movement in an
atom to the gigantic explosions of stars are within His power and
control. He is beyond time and space limitations. He is beyond
matter and its limitations. His power stretches to all macro and
micro world.
``To Him belongs the dominion of the heaven and the earth
It is He who gives Life and Death and
He has power over all things
He is the first and the last
The evident and hidden
And He has full knowledge of all things’’ (Al Hadid: 2,3)
All the creatures in this world are Allah’s creations. Creator
and creations are not the same. Creation is entirely distinct from
the Creator. It is like a painter and his painting. Painter is not the
painting. Painting is not the painter. From any perspective they
are different. Qur’an uses the words `doonillahi (besides Allah)
and `gairullahi’ (other than Allah) whenever creation are mentioned.
It is clear from these words that creations are absolutely
different from God. All creations including man are different from
the essence of Allah according to the Qur’anic teachings.
Allah’s attributes:
The view that Allah doesn’t have any quality is against Qur’anic
teachings. The God introduced by Qur’an is complete in all righteous
qualities. But they are not comparable with those of men.
Human qualities are constrained within space-time limits. But the
qualities of Creator of space-time limits itself should definitely
be beyond space-time limits. The Quranic description of Allah
ie., "there is nothing whatever like unto Him’’ (Al-Shura: 11) indicates
not only the essence of the Creator but his qualities too.
The creations can never posses qualities equal to those of the Creator.
The Creator:
Allah is the one who created the universe from absolute nothingness.
Creation is also a quality of Allah. We can only build
things. It is just a kind of transformation that is brought to materials
available. A carpenter can make a table. He can not create a
table. But Allah can create table from nothingness. Combining
hydrogen and oxygen, Water can be produced in the laboratory.
But the scientist will not claim he has created water. Because water
is a creation of God Almighty. This is applicable to all substances.
And that is What Qur’an reveals through the following verses:
``O men! Here is a parable set forth! Listen to it!
Those on whom besides Allah, you call, cannnot create
(Even) a fly even if they all met together for the purpose!’’
(Al Hajj: 73)
The Mighty
All the animate and inanimate things in this Universe are observable
evidences of Allah’s might and power. The one who can
create out of nothingness should definitely be a Superior power.
There is nothing which is beyond His capacity. Listen to the
Quranic verse:
``This is so because Allah is the Reality,
It is He who gives life to the dead,
And it is he who has power over all things’’ (Al Hajj:6)
``Blessed be He, in whose hands is Dominion
And He over all things has power’’ (Al Mulk:1)
The Supreme:
From time immemorial, there have been men of power who
boasted that what all they have is due to their own abilities and
power. But history tells us that many such people had fallen into
unfathomable abyss of miseries. We have heard about people who
rose from scratches to dizzy heights of glory and pomp. But the
real owner of all powers is Allah alone. He makes man powerful
or powerless. The Qur’an Commands:
``Say, oh Allah’ Lord of Power (and rule)
You give power to whom you please
And You strip off power from whom You please
You endure with honour whom you please
And you bring low whom you please
In Your hands is all good
Verily over all things You have power’’ (Al-Imran:26)
The Omniscient:
Allah knows all. There is no state of ignorance. To Him there
is nothing like `revealed’ or `secret’. Nothing is public or private
to Him. He is all knowing. Past, present and future are for this
world which incurably is bound by these three time epochs. Allah
is beyond time. He knows past, present and future. He knows all
the secrets and intricacies of every animate and inanimate things
in this world which He has created. Qur’an explains this fact:
``With Him are the keys, of the Unseen
The treasures that none knows but
He knows whatever there is on the Earth and in the sea
Not a leaf does fall but with His knowledge
There is not a grain in the darkness (or depth) of the Earth
Nor anything fresh or dry (green or witheres)
But is (inscribed) in a record
Clear (to those who can read)’’ (Al Ana’m: 59)
``He knows the Unseen and that which is open
He is the Great, the most High
It is the same (to Him) whether any of you
Conceal his speech or declare it openly;
Wheather he lie hid by night
Or walk forth freely by day’’ (Al Ra’d: 9,10)
``And whether you hide your word or publish it
He certainly has (full) knowledge of the
Secrets of (all) Hearts
Should He not know- He that created?
And He is the one that understands the finest
Mysteries (and) is well acquainted (with them)’’
(Al Mulk: 13,14)
The Living:
Allah has given life to us all. Life has started from Him. There
is a limit for the life of all creations since they have started life at
a particular point in time. One day they will perish. Sleep, death,
drowziness, etc..... will affect creations. But life in its complete
and absolute form exists only in Allah. No beginning, no end, no
sleep, no drowziness. The Quran declares:
``Allah! there is no god but He -the Living
The self subsisting, eternal
No slumber can seize Him, nor sleep’’ (Al Baqarah: 255)
Hearing, sight and such senses of human beings and other life
forms have limitations. The life -giver who has provided these
senses does not have these limitations. Or there is no sanctity for
such limitations in Him. This idea is more meaningful when we
know that these senses are beyond space-time limits in His case.
It is also accurate and specific. God is without qualities for people
who make Him deaf and mute. But Allah the Holy Qur’an
presents is different.
``Allah hears and sees (all things)’’ (Al Mujadilah:1)
The most Gracious and Merciful:
The Qur’an declares that Allah who creates and protects His
creation is the most Graceful and Merciful. His name Al Rahman
has been several times repeated in the Holy Qur’an. In the Holy
Quran this divine name is repeated 169 times. It means `the most
Merciful to his creations’. Every chapter except on in the Quran
starts with `Bilsmillahi Rahmani Rahim’ Every good deed is started
with `Bismillah’. Which means `In the name of Allah the most
Gracious, the most Merciful. It is the most repeated sentence in a
Muslims’s life. Allah Himself considers mercy towards creation
as binding on Him. He declares this fact in the Holy Qur’an:
``Your Lord has inscribed for Himself (the ruel of)
Mercy; verily if any one of you did evil
In ignorance and there after repented and amended
(His conduct)
He is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful’’ (Al Ana’am: 54)
Allah hates sins. And the Qur’an says that sinners cannot attain
proximity to Allah. But whatever be the quantum of sin one
has committed if he repents sincerely and accept the path of righteousness.
Allah, the most Merciful will forgive all his previous
sins. That is What Qur’an teaches:
``Say: Oh my servants who have transgressed
Against their souls!
Despair not of the Mercy of Allah;
For Allah forgives
All sins for He is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful
Turn you to your Lord (in repentance) and bow
To His (will) before the Penalty comes on you;
After that you shall not be helped’’ (Al Zumar: 53, 54)
Allah likes those who repent. Those who repent with heartfelt
guilty consciousness and confess sincerely and try not to move
again to the paths of sin, will be forgiven by the Most Merciful
Allah. He doesn’t like any one in between for recommendation or
meditation. Prophet (SA) describes through an example, the pleasure
Allah will have when somebody returns to the righteous path
after repentance.
`One man sleeps under the shadow of a tree in the desert. He
gets up to find his camel gone. It was carrying food and water for
him. Now he is left out alone in the desert. He desperately searches
for the camel. At the end he loses all hopes and looks beyond the
horizon as a man who has lost every thing in life. All on a sudden
the camel appears in front of him. What will be his relief and
happiness? Allah will enjoy many many times of this happiness
when His sinful slave repents. There are a number of verses in the
Qur’an which reveals qualities related to His mercy and grace. Al
Rahman, Al Rahim, Salaam, Gafoor, Latheef, Kareem, Thawab,
Wadood, etc,.... are a few among them which designate His boundless
mercy and love for this creation.
The Just:
Man is the only living being which can independently do things
on his own. He can think about and weigh in his mind the pros
and cons of various situations and take decisions accordingly. He
can rise to sublime levels by virtuous deeds and sink low to shameful
depths by sinning. Allah commands him to choose the righteous
path and live accordingly. Happiness and peace can prevail
only in a society where moral values are accepted and followed.
Therefore is bound on every human being to accept moral values.
But every human being has an innermost evil desire to isolate
these moral values. A peaceful civilised society can flourish only
if such desires are brought under control.
Doing good things for the making of an elite society is actually
a part of Allah’s mercy. That is why Allah has given the ruling
that those who sin here shall get a painful life in the hereafter
and those who do good deeds will get a virtuous life in the hereafter.
If evil and righteousness, right and wrong, justice and injustice
are treated alike by Allah’s divine justice what is the sanctity
of truth, justice and righteousness? Our common sense tells us
that it is not rational. Evil and righteousness should be rewarded
in the same coin. The deeds- good or bad- in this world will be
rewarded in a fitting manner in the hereafter. The punishment a
sinner receives in the hereafter is actually, because of Allah’s abundant
mercy to the human race. Allah commands Prophete (SA):
``Tell my servants, that I am indeed
The oft-forgiving, Most Merciful,
And that My penalty will be indeed
The most grievous penalty’’ (Al Hajr: 49,50)
There are many Qur’anic verses which make it clear that it is a
part of Allah’s justice to reward human beings for all their deeds
in this materialistic world and that He would not be unjust to
anybody. The Qur’an says:
``And Allah means no injustice to any of His creatures’’
(Al Imran:108)
``Allah is never unjust in the least degree’’ (Al Nisa: 40)
``And not one will your Lord treat with injustice’’
(Al Kahf: 49)
Allah, One and Only to be Worshipped:
It is Allah who creates and protects human beings. He is the
Creator and Protector of the whole world. He is the Most Graceful
and Merciful. He knows all. even the hidden things. He is just.
Only He who knows the `in’ and `out’ of things will know the
transactions going on in the minds of people. Allah says in the
Qur’an:
``Allah knows well all that is in (men’s) hearts’’
(Luqman:23)
Prayer means asking those who have inhuman powers for things
beyond human power and capability. There fore prayer is a kind
of celestial, spiritual plea for help. The essence of prayer is actually
in the minds of those who pray. Whatever be the beauty of
prayer if it doesn’t spring out from the depths of the heart it is
worthless. It is just a verbal jugglery. It generates from the fast
movements of the lips. Prayer is meaningul only if the worshipper’s
heart yearns for the help of the worshipped. Prayer is the
essence of all kinds of worship. Only prayer can put life in the
rituals of any kind of worship.
So whom should man offer prayer to? Whom should he worship?
It is to Him who hold the key to the entire secrets, things
private and public in this Universe, who knows the innermost
transactions of every human being. He only deserves prayer that
is what common sense says. Prayers should be offered to only the
Creator and the Protector. That is what Islam teaches. Belief in
God attains perfection only when it is held wth conviction that
prayers and other offerings are to be made only to Allah. Thauhid
(belief in Oneness of God) which Islam upholds will be complete
only when He, Who is complete and perfect in every thing is
worshipped.
Social scientists are of the opinion that faith in God influences
the innermost corners of human hearts. Man transforms himself
into inferior levels when he starts worshipping natural phenomena
inferior to his own entity and essence. Man’s superior nature
is blemished when he finds demigods in every animate and inanimate
things in nature. Man attains spititual elitism only when he
offers prayers to an invincible and absolute power ie., Allah, It is
worship to Him only, that is demanded by Allah from human beings.
Allah says in the Qur’an:
``I have only created Jinns and men that,
They may worship me
No substance do I require of them,
Nor do I require that they should feed me
For Allah is He who gives (all) sustence
Lord of power-steadfast (forever)’’
(Al Dhariyat: 56, 58)
It is the worship to the Creator and Protector that prevents
man from sins. The Qur’an commands man:
``Oh you people!
Adore your Guardian Lord, Who created you
And those who came before you,
That you may become righteous’ (Al Baqarah: 21)
In the same chapter Qur’an declares:
``Allah, there is no god, but He-the Living
The Self subsisting, Eternal,
No slumber can seize Him nor sleep
His are all things in the heavens and on earth
Who is there that can intercede in His presence
Except as He permits?
He knows what (appears to His creature as)
Before or after or Behind them
Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge
Except as He wills
His throne does extend over the heavens
And the earth and He feels
No fatigue in guarding and preserviing them
For He is the Most High-The Supreme (in glory)’’
(Al Baqarah: 255)
``He is who shapes you in the wombs
As He pleases.
There is no god but He
The Exalted in Might, the Wise’’ (Al-Imran:6)
``There is no god but He
That is the witness of Allah
His angels and those endued with knowledge
Standing firm on justice
There is no god but He
The Exalted in power, the wise’’ (Al-Imran:18)
``Allah! There is no god but He, of a surety
He will gather you together against
The Day of judgement,
About which there is no doubt
And whose word can be
Truer than Allah’s?’’ (Al Nisa: 87)
A man can enter through the door of faith (Imam) and enroll
himself as a member of the society of believers (Mu’min) only
when he strongly believes that Allah is the only one deservng all
forms of worship and prayers and that He is unparalled in essence
and qualities.
Man starts leading a new different life when he believes in the
oneness of God. He doesn’t bow in front of idols and tombs. He
leads a life absolutely free offering prayers to the One and Only
Allah and accepts His commands truthfully. Thus he becomes a
Muslim and transforms himself to some one who has submitted
totally to the will of the Creator.

21
Quran Morality and Moral Code, Laws & QA / QURA'N AND SLAVERY :
« on: February 03, 2013, 09:23:03 AM »
What is the Quran’s approach towards slavery ?

Slavery is a tradition which is non-existent in our society today. It is necessary to understand clearly the roots of slavery and the influence that it exerted on the societies in which it was prevalent when we set about to study this phenomenon of the past from the environs of today. Indeed, it is not possible to come to but one conclusion in a current study of past phenomena. It is only when we realize what slavery actually is, and the influence which it exerted on the past societies, that we can truly appreciate the greatness of the Quran’s own approach towards it.

By slavery is meant the state in which one person comes under the complete domination of another. Indeed, he is a slave who surrenders all that is of his own which includes his body, life, family and all else to the control of another person. He is the property of the owner. The owner may be an individual, a society or even a nation. No matter who that owner might be, the slave is the one who is destined to live under his master enjoying whatever the rights and privileges that is allowed to him by his owner.

There are no relevent documents that serve to show the exact way in which the institution of slavery developed or how, or when, it did start off. It is, however, certain that this institution had commenced by twenty centuries before Christ. Slaves have found mention in the legal code U r Name which existed around 2050 B.C. It is believed that slavery must have originated from the practice of curtailing the freedom of those caught as prisoners-of-war and of forcing them into unpaid labour, This belief is founded on the names with which slaves were referred to in the ancient Sumerian language. The male slave was named Nida-koor and the female slave Munas-koor. The meaning or these terms were ‘Foreign man’ and ‘Foreign woman’ respectively. It is believed that as the prisoners-of-war were brought in from foreign lands and made slaves, they were referred to by these very names.

Slavery, in one form or the other was prevalent in almost all parts of the world. The Old Testament of the Bible, which describes the ancient tales of Israeli society, is replete with many accounts concerning slavery. It can be seen that the tradition of selling people existed during the time of the patriarch prophet, Abraham, itself. (Genesis 17:13,14). It is the commandment of the Bible that prisoners-of-war are to be enslaved (Deuteronomy 20:10,11). The Bible, which permits the torture of the slave by the master, nevertheless, stresses the point that the slave is not to be killed during the course of torturing. The law which prevailed, in this matter, amongst the Israeli society was that, “If a man beats his male or female slave with a rod and the slave dies as a direct result, he must be punished, but he is not to be punished if the slave gets up after a day or two, since the slave is his property.’’ (Exodus 21:20,21)

The instituion of slavery was prevalent both during, and after, the time of Jesus Christ. There has been nothing from among the sayings of Jesus, which serve to show the treatment that was to be meted out to the slaves. If, the statements: “Slaves, obey your earthly masters with respect and fear, and with sincerity of heart, just as you would obey Christ. Obey them not only to win their favour when their eyes is on you, but like slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from your heart. Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord, not men, because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good be does, whether he is slave or free. And masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no favouritism

with him.” (Ephesians 6:5-9) and “Slaves, obey your earthly mastersin everything; and do it, not only when their eye is on you and to win their favour, but with sincerity of heart and reverence for the Lord.” (Colossians 3:22) are excepted , there is nothing in the letters of Paul which deal with slavery. It can be seen that the cruel system of slavery that prevailed in the Graeco-Roman tradition continued to exist without any change, whatsoever, even after its Christianization. It is of greater pertinence to note that the official religion of the Roman civilization which boasted of its own tales of a cruel, and barbaros form of slavery, was Christianity.

In India, slavery existed as part and parcel of religion itself. The caste system was an inextricable portion of religion.We see the roots of the caste system in the purusha verse of the Rig Veda (10:90:12), the foremost among the vedic compilations which, in themselves, form the most important part of the Shruthi. It was but natural that under the caste system that was based on the reference in the Rig Veda that “the Brahman is created from the head, the Vaishya from the hands and the Shudra from the feet of the Parampurusha”, the Brahman was considered highly and the Shudra of a lowly stature. All the books of Hinduism have only sought to justify the caste system

The Bhagavath Gita, which is known to be the book of shruthi of modern Hinduism, has itself said: “Chaturvarnyam Mayasrishtam guna karma Vibagusha” (4:13). This means that, “I have created the four castes according to the division of their deeds.” It was natural then that the one who was created from the feet of God was destined to a life of foot-service alone. Indeed, it was believed that the shudra was specially created for the very purpose of service alone. The religious scriptures had taught that one is born of a lower caste owing to the sins of an earlier life and that if one is to attain salvation at least in the next life, he is to render service to those of the higher castes and employ himself in keeping them satisfied in this life. The Chandoupanishad has compared those of the lower caste to pigs and dogs. A reading of the Manusmrithi and the Parasharasmrithi will serve to show that the attitude and conduet adopted towards them was more cruel and wicked than that shown to the animals.

It can also be seen that along with the tradition of condemning to slavery by virtue of one’s birth, there also existed, in India, the slave trade that was accompanied by all the cruelty that goes with it. It is also given to understand from the scrolls unearthed in Tamilnadu that the slave trade which was associated with temples flourished both during and after the period of the Cholas. Slave trade was prevalent in Myrore, Bihar and Kerala as well. With the arrival of the English East India company, the practice of taking away people from India, of enslaving them and then taking them overseas also came into being. Some historical documents record the incident wherein an Italian priest from Trancubar sells off, for the sum of thirty pagodas, the wife and four children of a Christian from Madurai to the captain of a ship bound for Manila [Sarvavijnanakosham, Volume I, page 258] According to a survey taken in 1841, there were between eighty to ninety lakhs of slaves in India at that period. Moreover, it was in the Malabar region, where the largest concentration of slaves in India existed. Indeed, it has been remarked that 15 percent of the entire population in the region were slaves! (Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 27, p.289)

It is further given to understand that the most cruel form of slavery had prevailed during the period which lasted between the second century before Christ and the next long stretch of six hundred years in the Roman empire. The slave in the Roman empire was merely an object of trade with no rights in any form whatsoever. He was treated as lowly as to be destined to a fate wherein he was even doomed to death in a fight against another slave merely to provide sadistic pleasure to his master. Indeed, it was the usual practice of the masters to shout ‘hurray’ and to threaten the slaves at the point of the whip when the loss of blood from the body of the slave, so involved in a fight unto death, increased in quantity! The most cruel form of slavery this was!

It was Columbus’s discovery of America which had, in fact, served to make slavery rampant in the modern world. The Negroes were made slaves and were traded in the markets. It was a Spanish bishop, Barthalocha De Lascasas, who had first initiated the American system of slavery. There were companies in Europe which had been registered for the purpose of slave trade alone. The trade of these companies involved the bringing away of slaves from the coastal regions of Africa and then selling them off in America. It is estimated that nearly one and a half crores of slaves were thus imported into America during the 17th to the 19th century. The slaves were taken away in pairs abroad the ships bound in hand and feet chains to one another. A sizeable portion of the slaves would perish while overcoming the Atlantic Ocean itself. There are no records which show the number of persons who had died in this manner. How cheap, indeed, was the life of the slave ?!

It has been as an introduction to the study of the Quran’s vision on slavery as well as its approach towards it that the origins and history of the said tradition has been dealt with in some detail. Instead of an impractical and unscientific approach whereby a centuries-old institution was sought to be abolished by a single declaration, Islam developed and implemented a very practicable system of eliminating slavery.

In this context, if the sheer practicability of Islam’s line of action is to be fully appreciated, we will have to understand the very psychology of the slave as well. There exists a vast difference between the mindset of the slave and that of the free man. In the formation of the mindset of the slave, a life of continual slavery exerts a very great influence indeed. As a result of carrying the yoke of slavery upon himself for generations, the habits of obedience and submission will have become deep-rooted within his mind. He is, as such, incapable of executing tasks on his own or taking up any responsibility. His mind, however, is ever ready to take upon his head any command of the master and knows, moreover, to carry forward all matters according to his master’s wishes. Neverthless, he is able only to obey and execute orders. His mind will be incapacitated in taking up responsiblities. His mind can, in no wise, be so burdened. He is only able to flee from taking up responsibilities. However, he will always be ready to take upon his head whatever it is that the master commands.

The psychology of the slave and the master is located at two opposite poles or extremes. If one is that of arrogance, the other will be that of meekness. The example of America is, in itself, the best case in point to show that the emancipation of slaves that is not based on an approach whereby these mindsets, which are located at opposite poles, are first brought together on to the same plane, will never be emancipation at all. It was through the activism of Abraham Lincoln that, through a single proclamation, the slaves in America achieved freedom one fine morning! But what was it that actually happened there? The slaves who ultimately recieved their freedom were, however, unable to bear the ‘weight’ of this freedom. They looked around, not quite knowing what it was that they were to do. Since there was none to command them now, they were unable to do anything at all. Indeed, they returned back to their masters and actually asked them to to take them back as slaves. Here, it is seen that it is futile to physically set free those who are psychologically unprepared for that freedom.

The Quran, which has been revealed by God who is fully aware of the physical and mental states of human beings, has provided a completely practical code of action. The system of slavery was one of the pillars of the economic set-up of Arabia. It’s roots had penetrated much deeper than to enable its eradication by a mere order of prohibition. As a system that had prevailed in the regions where Islam flourished as well as in areas where it did not, not only would it be practically difficult to abolish it, but such a course of action would, far from being effective, be quite harmful, indeed. It was, therefore, that Allah, who is acutely aware of the nature of human society, contrary to bringing a law that would completely abolish slavery, accepted a practical code of action for its eradication.

Islam had, firstly, sought to bring the two groups of people, situated as they were at two extreme states of the mental condition, on to a common platform. The Quran had put forward a programme of civilizing both slave and master. Besides this, it kept open all the ways for achieving freedom as a gift and as a product of one’s own labour. The Quran had, by bringing the slave and the master on to the same plane of psychological awareness, opened out the ways for achieving freedom and, furthermore, enabled him (i.e., the slave) to protect that freedom once he had attained it. Indeed, such alone was the practical way in the matter.
 

What were the practical steps which the Quran adopted for the eradication of slavery ?

It may be seen that the Quran had adopted five steps for the eradication of slavery.

1. Created a sense of brotherhood.

The Quran had, firstly, created a notion that both master and slave were brothers, one to the other, by inculcating an awareness that all men were the creations of the same God and were the children of the same parents. “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (Quran 49:13)

Here, the Quran has cut apart the very root of all forms of narrow mindedness that arose out of the feelings of superior birth. Indeed, the prophet had taught that righteousness was measured not on the basis of colour, race or wealth, but on the basis of God-consciousness alone. “The Arab has no superiority over the non-Arab or the non-Arab over the Arab; the white over the black or the black over the white except in the matter of God-consciousness.” (Tabari)

Where slaves are mentioned, the Holy Quran remarked that “some amongst you proceed from others.”(Quran:4:25). Here the Quran has made it clear that both master and slave are brothers, one to the other, and that it is circumstances alone which force slavery upon some people.

2. It created an awareness concerning the rights of the slave.

The slave was a mere commodity item in all ancient societies. His lot was confined to duties alone. His obligation was simply to strive for an increase in the comforts and luxury enjoyed by the master and in this regard, there was to be no compromise whatsoever. It was a paramount necessity that the slave was in good shape in order that he be able to work for his master. Indeed, it was for this reason, and for this reason alone, that he was provided for with food. They (i.e., the slaves) were housed in yards which sufficed to accomodate not even the cattle and other livestock. As for the clothes that they were provided with, they were sufficient not even to cover their nakedness and, that too, filthy pieces of clothes they were!

Islam brought about a transformation in the situation. It taught that the slave was the brother of the master and that he had rights as well. The prophet commanded: “They are your brothers and relatives! Let each one provide for the brother under him with the food that he himself eats and with the clothes that he himself wears. Place not upon them any task that is overbearing for them. If you do assign them a difficult task, you must help them in its execution.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

The duty of the slave, in primitive societies, was never confined to mere labour. He was also doomed to be at the receiving end of his master’s sadistic pleasure-seekings. The most cruel flogging while at work! To be always ready to kill and to be killled for the sake of his master’s pleasure! TheQuran commanded that such a state of affairs must change. It instructed in the humane and proper treatment of the slaves. “Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good - to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbours who are of kin, neighbours who are strangers, the companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet), and what your right hands possess: for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious.”(Quran 4:36)

The prophet had clearly stated, “If anyone kills a slave, we shall kill him. If anyone maims a slave, we shall maim him as well. If anyone castrates his slave, we shall castrate him.”(Muslim, Abu Dawood)

From being the choice commodity for the master’s choicest desire, the slave was being transformed into a being with his very own personality and rights. It was in a society in which existed the heinous practice of castrating slaves that the prophet had, in the most unambiguous terms, declared that the master who castrates his slave will, in turn, ‘be castrated by us.’ The slaves were castrated in order that their sexual impulses be destroyed, whereby, they could then be made to work like animals. Islam, which prohibited this practice, particularly instructs that means should be made available for the satisfaction of the sexual instincts of the slave also. “Marry those among you who are single, and the virtuous ones among your slaves, male or female: if they are in poverty, Allah will give them means out of His grace: for Allah is Ample-giving, and He knoweth all things.” (Quran 24:32)

Furthermore, the Quran prohibited the system of forcing female slaves into prostitution. “Let those who find not the wherewithal for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah gives them means out of His grace. And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (for emancipation) give them such a deed if ye know any good in them; yea, give them something yourselves out of the means which Allah has given to you. But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire Chastity, in order that ye may make a gain in the goods of this life. But if anyone compels them, yet, after such compulsion, is Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Quran 24:33)

The prophet had taught against even uttering anything that might injure the self-respect of the slave. The prophet, who had taught that had made it clear that the slave, too, enjoyed self-respect upon which none had the right to trespass. The prophet had admonished his companion, Abu Dharr, who, in an angry tussle with his slave, had called him ‘the son of a black woman’, in the following manner: “ O Abu Dharr.... There remains in you something of the culture of the days of Jahiliyya.”

Islam teaches that the slave has the right to become even a leader and that in the event that he does get appointed as a leader, it is obligatory to obey him. “Even if it be a negro slave, with hair like dried grapes, who is appointed as your leader, you must hear and obey him.” Abu Hurairah, the companion of the prophet, once exhorted a man who had his slave walking behind the mount on which he was travelling, “Seat him behind thee for he is thy brother and it is the same soul as yours that is within him.”

Islam gave new meaning to the relation between master and slave by insisting that the master and the slave both had the same soul. It is true, neverthless, that the slave does fall under the jurisdiction of the master. However, the master is duty-bound to fullfill the rights of the slave. It is his duty to meet the slave’s requirements of food, clothing, sexual gratification and the like. The slave is never to be harmed. He should not be put into difficulty by entrusting him with burdensome tasks as well. In such fashion did Islam create a revolution of sorts in raising the slave, for the first time in history, to the position of a free man.

It was through this way that it became possible for Islam to bridge the wide gap that existedQuran commanded that such a state of affairs must change. It instructed in the humane and proper treatment of the slaves. “Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good - to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbours who are of kin, neighbours who are strangers, the companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet), and what your right hands possess: for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious.”(Quran 4:36)

The prophet had clearly stated, “If anyone kills a slave, we shall kill him. If anyone maims a slave, we shall maim him as well. If anyone castrates his slave, we shall castrate him.”(Muslim, Abu Dawood)

From being the choice commodity for the master’s choicest desire, the slave was being transformed into a being with his very own personality and rights. It was in a society in which existed the heinous practice of castrating slaves that the prophet had, in the most unambiguous terms, declared that the master who castrates his slave will, in turn, ‘be castrated by us.’ The slaves were castrated in order that their sexual impulses be destroyed, whereby, they could then be made to work like animals. Islam, which prohibited this practice, particularly instructs that means should be made available for the satisfaction of the sexual instincts of the slave also. “Marry those among you who are single, and the virtuous ones among your slaves, male or female: if they are in poverty, Allah will give them means out of His grace: for Allah is Ample-giving, and He knoweth all things.” (Quran 24:32)

Furthermore, the Quran prohibited the system of forcing female slaves into prostitution. “Let those who find not the wherewithal for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah gives them means out of His grace. And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (for emancipation) give them such a deed if ye know any good in them; yea, give them something yourselves out of the means which Allah has given to you. But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire Chastity, in order that ye may make a gain in the goods of this life. But if anyone compels them, yet, after such compulsion, is Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Quran 24:33)

The prophet had taught against even uttering anything that might injure the self-respect of the slave. The prophet, who had taught that had made it clear that the slave, too, enjoyed self-respect upon which none had the right to trespass. The prophet had admonished his companion, Abu Dharr, who, in an angry tussle with his slave, had called him ‘the son of a black woman’, in the following manner: “ O Abu Dharr.... There remains in you something of the culture of the days of Jahiliyya.”

Islam teaches that the slave has the right to become even a leader and that in the event that he does get appointed as a leader, it is obligatory to obey him. “Even if it be a negro slave, with hair like dried grapes, who is appointed as your leader, you must hear and obey him.” Abu Hurairah, the companion of the prophet, once exhorted a man who had his slave walking behind the mount on which he was travelling, “Seat him behind thee for he is thy brother and it is the same soul as yours that is within him.”

Islam gave new meaning to the relation between master and slave by insisting that the master and the slave both had the same soul. It is true, neverthless, that the slave does fall under the jurisdiction of the master. However, the master is duty-bound to fullfill the rights of the slave. It is his duty to meet the slave’s requirements of food, clothing, sexual gratification and the like. The slave is never to be harmed. He should not be put into difficulty by entrusting him with burdensome tasks as well. In such fashion did Islam create a revolution of sorts in raising the slave, for the first time in history, to the position of a free man.

It was through this way that it became possible for Islam to bridge the wide gap that existed between the mental states of the master and the slave. The end result of this revolution was that the owner was emancipated from the belief that the slave was a commodity on which could be carried out his choicest desire while the slave was freed of the notion that he was doomed to a fate in which he was to bear, and to be patient and labouring always.

3. Declared the emancipation of slaves to be an act of righteousness.

By declaring the slave’s to be an existence which had rights of its own, Islam had technically made slavery non-existent. Without stopping at that point, however, it went further by turning to a course of action which would, in time, serve to eliminate the system in a very practical sense indeed. This practical step which Islam had adopted to make slavery virtually non-existent was its act of declaring the emancipation of slaves to be an act of righteousness. The position of the prophet as regards the emancipation of slaves was such that it only reinforced the meaning of the Quranic reference that “Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (Scriptures) - In the Taurat and the Gospel; for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure) : He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the Light which is sent down with him, it is they who will prosper.” (Quran 7:157)

The Quranic verse which makes it clear that the emancipation of slaves is an act of the highest virtue goes as follows: “And what will explain to thee the path that is steep? (It is) freeing the bondman; or the giving of food in a day of privation, to the orphan with claims of relationship, or to the indigent (down) in the dust.” (Quran 90:12-16)

As far as the emancipation of slaves was concerned, the prophet had exhorted his companions towards it by, firstly, making an example himself. He set free the slaves who were in his possession. His companions, too, followed the same path. In this context, it may be seen that Abu Bakr (t), a man of prominence amongst the companions, spent countless wealth in purchasing slaves from the pagans for setting them free.

There are numerous sayings of the prophet which encourage the freeing of slaves. “If anyone sets free a believing slave, each of his body parts will be set free from Hell so much so that it will be the hand for a hand, the leg for a right up to the sexual organ for the sexual organ.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

Once the companion, Abu Dharr (t), asked the prophet, “Which is the highest act in the emancipation of slaves ?” The prophet replied, “To set free the most valuable slave of the master.”

The prophet, while talking about those who become deserving of God’s reward twice, said, “He who confers a proper behaviour upon the female slave under him, then gives her the best education, sets her free and then marries her will become entitled to a double reward.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

Thus it was that the believers, both during the time of the prophet and afterwards, began to set slaves free expecting, in return, the reward of the Lord Creator itself. Besides this, a situation came up wherein even the wealth of Zakat began to be used for the emancipation of slaves. It may be seen from history that during the reign of Umar bin Abdul Azeez, when there was not a single needy person to accept the wealth of Zakat, this money was used to purchase slaves in order to set them free.

4. Emancipation of slaves was made the act of expiation for many types of sin.

In addition to encouraging the believers towards its commission by declaring the emancipationof slaves to be a virtuous deed, Islam recommended it as an act of expiation for many types of sin. The atonement for sins like unintentional murder and breaking one’s vow of not approaching his wife was the freeing of one slave. As for those who were not ready to free slaves in expectation of Divine reward alone, the command which made the emancipation of slaves an atoning act for sins committed, nevertheless, made it necessary for them to do so.

5. The facility of providing the slave with his freedom in exchange of the ransom value was made possible.

Let us suppose that it was still not possible for a slave to become free by any of the means listed above. Even then freedom is not impossible for him. Islam has opened a way out for any slave who desires his freedom. This becomes possible through a freedom deed known by the technical name Mukathaba. If the yearning for freedom becomes entrenched within, it becomes possible for any slave to become a free man through the Mukathaba. The master and the slave get together to decide upon a ransom value and a time-frame for its payment on mutually agreeable terms. It is further possible for the slave to go out and work to earn this ransom value himself. Thus, the slave is enabled to pay the ransom value in instalments. With the completion of this payment he becomes a free man.

Through this facility, Islam has made possible the opportunity for fulfilling the dream of independence of any slave in whose heart there, indeed, arises such a desire. What if the slave, after having written down the document for his freedom, is unable to pay the ransom amount within the stipulated time period? Islam has provided the solution for this as well. One of the eight heads under which the Zakat wealth is to be expended is the emancipation of slaves (Quran 9:60). If it happens that a slave is unable to pay his ransom value according to the Mukathaba, he can approach the Baithulmal (public treasury) for the purpose. It is the responsibility of those who handle it to set the man free by making use of a stipulated amount from it. Here Islam has devised a way which makes use of the wealth of the wealthy to emancipate slaves.

As far as the problem of slavery is concerned, Islam adopted a line of action which provided for the freedom from the binding chains by teaching the slave what freedom actually means and by enabling them to free themselves from dependence on others. In reality, there has been no other course of action to which anyone could point and say that that was a better way than the method adopted by Islam in the case of slavery. If that is to be really appreciated it would be necessary to view the problem from the perspective of the time and the society in which it prevailed as an established institution in itself.
 

Has not the Quran actually legalized adultery by allowing for the master to have sexual relationships with his female slaves?

Female slaves are the natural by-product of the system of slavery. The situation that prevailed in all societies where the institution of slavery existed was such that slave women were used at will and were employed to gain economic advantage by inciting them towards prostitution. As for Islam, it provided for a facility which would, in the course of one generation, bring an end to the system through the slave women themselves.

The slave woman is the property of the master. However, the master has no right, whatsoever, to incite her towards adultery. Like the male slaves, the female slaves, too, have rights of their own. It is the duty of the master to provide her with food, shelter, clothes and other necessities. Moreover, the Quran has asked the owner to make the necessary arrangements for her marriage as well (Quran 24:32).

This, in effect, means that the Quran has prompted the owner towards having sexual relations with an unmarried female slave. This permission is however restricted to the owner alone. None elseis allowed to use her in this fashion even if it be with the permission of the master!

In giving birth to the child of the master, the slave woman becomes entitled to new rights. Thenceforth, the master has no right to sell her. She becomes the mother of her master’s children. These children, too, become entitled to all the rights and privileges enjoyed by the master’s other children. Islam disagrees with the Jewish stand that the children born through a slave woman has none of the rights that accrue from the position of fathership. These children are, in all respects, his own children. There is to be no discrimination of any kind between them and the other children.

With the death of the master, the slave woman, who is the mother of his children, becomes a free woman. She is then protected by her own children. They, too, like the other children, will becomes entitled to a share in their father’s inheritance.

The permission to accept slave women as one’s life-partner was, in fact, a provision which would, in the course of one generation, cut out the very root of slavery. In reality, therefore, the permission granted for having relations with slave women was one among the many unique steps taken by Islam in practically eradicating slavery. Indeed, that was exactly what transpired in the Islamic world.

It is not possible to equate the permission given for having relations with slave women to adultery. Both cases stand at two opposing poles. One is the case of the woman who lives under her master enjoying the protection that he confers upon her. It is a relationship in which he fully agrees to take up the responsibilities that may accrue as a product of that relationship. It is a relationship in which her personality, beyond the contours defined by sex, is accorded full recognition. It is a relationship which opens to her the door to freedom. As for the second, it is nothing but an irresponsible relationship with a prostitute. The prostitute is, in fact, much worser off than the slave woman. For, she is nothing more than a soul less animal. Her function is restricted solely to the gratification of the animal passions of man. There is not even a grain of love and compssion in that relationship. Not the slightest touch of personal fulfillment even. It is but a transaction made solely for money. Flesh trade! The man who comes for the satisfaction of the desire of his flesh is never prepared to take up the responsibility that may accrue from it. He has no obligation towards her. She is only an animal destined to satisfy the desire of his flesh. Each one of her relationships will serve only to immerse her even deeper into the mire that is the inhumanity of prostitution. Even the very dream of freedom will be alien to her. She is one doomed to embrace the loneliness of orphanhood when in a diseased state, with her skin withered and faded, she ends up being the object of nobody’s concern.

What, then, of the tradition which lays open, before the slave, the very door to freedom? And what of the rottings system which drives the woman from one dependence to the other? Any comparison, whatsoever, between these two is impossible. Two systems that stand at two opposing and extreme poles. One recognized by benign humanism, the other which leads to the depredation of beastiality.

 

Why did the Quran not make marriage mandatory for having sexual relations with the slave woman?

The Quran does provide permission for those who wish to marry slave women (4:27). Indeed, the prophet had said that such marriages will confer a double reward. “He who provides the slave woman under him with proper manners, provides her with the best education, then frees her and ultimately marries her will be given a double reward.’’ (Bukhari, Muslim)

The guardian of the slave is the master whether it be a male or a female slave. The guardianship of the slave woman who is under a male master rests with that man. Even if she is to be married off, it is he who will have to carrry it out to completion. It is also he who is to take care of all her affairs. It is for this very reason that there is not the need for the act of marrying her. In Islam, marriage is a contractthat is solemnized by the guardian of the woman and the bridegroom. Here, both is the master himself. Those is is that the marriage ceremony becomes irrelevant in itself.

The Quran instructs that the maximum number of wives for a man must be four (4:3). Let us suppose that there is a slave woman under the care of a man who has four wives He cannnot, in that case, marry her. If he is not ready to grant her her freedom, liberation from dependence will remain for her a dream. She will then be forced to approach adultery in her bid to satisfy her sexual desire. But since there is the law that the master can engage in sexual relations with her without recourse to marriage, a solution for all such problems manifests itself. It becomes possible for her to walk into freedom when she gives birth to her master’s child. It will also be the solution for her sexual needs. In a society where slavery prevails, if a solution is not found for the satisfaction of hude.....,it will lead to a large scale erosion of values. Along with this, there will also be the problem of the children born off adulterous relationships. Natuarally, they ,too,will end up as slaves. The end result of all this will be that slavery becomes entranched as a system that can, is, no wise, he terminated.

In the case of Islam, however, the provision is made such that the masters are permitted to have sexual relations with woman slaves, whereby, within the span of a single generation, slavery is made extinct. If ‘marriage’ is made a condition for it, it is not possible then to obtain the results envisaged by Islam. Certainly, all masters would not be willing to marry their woman-slaves. Besides, it is impossible for those who already have four wives.
 

Why did Islam not limit the number of one’s woman slaves ?

Islam, which commanded that marriages should be restricted to four, has, however, not imposed any restriction on the number of woman-slaves. Who may be kept in one's possession. This means that a man may keep as many slave-women as he likes under him. Why did Islam allow this?

Slaves comes into the possession of the master in three ways. These ways are: as inheritance, personal purchase and as captured prisoners-of-war. Of these three, a man can decide the number of slaves to be under him only in the case of personal purchase. He is, however, unable to control, or limit, the number of slaves who come into his possession by way of inheritance and as prisoners-of-war who are captured and enslaved. If the governments decision is to enslave the captured prisoners-of-war, the usual practice is to divide them amongst all those who participated in the war. In the event that a large number of prisoners-of-war are captured, then the number of slaves who come into the possession of each individual will increase. It may be seen from history that nearly six thousand men were captured in the Battle of Hunain.

The prisoners-of-war who were captured were, however, made slaves only under inevitable circumstances . The Muslims were not in the habit of capturing women and children when, in battle, the enemies were defeated at their hands. It may be seen that during the wars that took place in the time of the Caliphs, nobody was enslaved in Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Egypt. If in war, the men were killed or taken as prisoners, the women and children will, as a result, become orphans. Islam has commanded that they are never to be killed in war. Even if the children and women who went to war with their men are captured as prisoners, more often than not they were exchanged for Muslim prisoners. However, in some instances, Islam did permit their enslavement. It will be remembered that this permission was granted in a society in which slavery was prevalent.

In any case, to limit the number of slaves who came into one's possession, by these means under the existing circumstances was extremely difficult. Similar was the case of the women as well .

The problem was, therefore, the question as to what it was that was to be done with the women who would come into one's possession by these means. It was possible then to marry her off to anotherman. It must be remembered here that the chances of a free man marrying a slave woman was, indeed, remote. Perhaps she could be married off to another slave. In both cases, however, as long as the slave remains the property of this man, her children, too, will continue to be his property as well. This meant that they, too, would end up being slaves. Apart from either option, they may be unconditionally set free. But such freedom will lead to their being rendered orphans, and to a serious erosion of values as well. Another option will be to allow her the exercise of all her human rights without yet marrying her and to let her live with her master. (After all, it would not be practical for all masters to set her free and then to marry her)

If the number of slaves living in such wise is limited, the question arises as to what is to be done with the other slave women who come beyond this limit but are still staying with the master. There would then be no means for them to attain their freedom. Their sexuality will then be either neglected or exploited. This will thus become the cause of great moral degeneration.

If these problems are seen in the context of a society in which slavery has its own existence, the fact that the laws envisioned by Islam in the matter are, indeed, very practical ones will become clearly manifested. In such a society, it is not possible to fix a limit for the number of male slaves who will come into one's possession. This is also the case with slave women as well. Such restrictions were never practical in that society. It was for the same reason that Islam never took the trouble to impose them.


Why was it that the Quran did not go to the extent of completely prohibiting slavery ?

Islam, which had undertaken a practical course of action necessary for the eradication of slavery, however, never went to the extent of issuing an order of total prohibition against it which it had done in the cases of intoxicants and adultery. Why was this so?

There is more than one reason for this. The line of action of the Quran which refrained from completely prohibiting slavery has, in fact, made clear its applicability for all time. From the stand adopted by it in this issue we has been given to understand the fact that the Quran is, indeed, a revelation from the Lord God Himself who is best aware of the changing trends and evolutionary processes of human society. If the Quran's act of not imposing total prohibition on slavery is studied in some depth, it will be a conclusive testimony to the statement of fact that Islam is, indeed, adaptable to the exigencies of time and that its recommendations are practical in any age.

The beginnings of the system of slavery traces itself to the prisoners who were captured in war. Before the proclamation made by modern states which imposed a total prohibition on slavery, it was the usual and prevalent practice to enslave prisoners captured in war. Prisoners-of-war were either to be killed or enslaved. This was the practice. Indeed, these were the only practical solutions available. After all, there was no provision to accommodate them as prisoners in those times.

What was to be done with those who were captured as prisoners-of-war?

In this regard, the recommendation of the Quran is as follows: “Therefore, when ye meet the unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; at length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind (the captives) firmly: therefore (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah’s Will, he could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.” (Quran 47:4). In this verse, which instructs to kill the enemies on the battle field, there is also the command to either ransom or set free those captured in war. In the light of this verse, all the eminent companions of the prophet have opined that prisoners-of-war were not to be killed.

The prophet has himself set the precedent in handling prisoners-of-war in four ways:

1. Set them free without any ransom. Prisoners-of-war may be set at liberty if it is clear that it will not be harmful for the Muslim society to do so.

2. They may be exchanged for the Muslims captured by the enemies.

3. They may be freed after securing a ransom.

4. They may be divided amongst the Muslims soldiers as slaves.

It may be seen that the prophet had, in different battles, employed all the different types of options listed above. Amongst those four options, the last option of enslaving the prisoners-of-war was used only when the other three options were wholly impractical. Indeed, if slavery was totally prohibited, a situation would have come up wherein the Muslims would never be able to accept this option at all. In actual fact, therefore, such a situation would have created many a difficulty for the Muslims especially in a social context wherein slavery prevailed as an established institution.

These who engaged in warfare with the Muslim society were people who accepted slavery as an option and were warring to acquire slaves as well. Furthermore, when warring with them, they either enslaved or killed the Muslims captured by them. If slavery had been abolished, the Muslims would never have been able to enslave those captured from their side. This would then have enabled the enemies to perpetrate even greater cruelty towards the Muslim prisoners. The Muslims would, moreover, be unable to use the captured prisoners of the enemy to effectively bid the price of those who were captured from their own side.

The enemies were aware that if slavery was abolished in Islam, the Muslims would become powerless to enslave or kill those captured from their side. Thus, the enemies would never settle for a mutual understanding that would allow for an exchange of their prisoners in return for the freedom of those captured from the Muslims.

As for the Muslims, the prisoners captured from the enemy ranks will merely end up being a headache. Their accommodation will become the responsibility of the Muslim community. It need not be said that on occasions where thousands of prisoners are captured, accommodating all of them will be an onerous task. The Muslim community will then become obliged to provide them with food and clothes as well. While they gladly live here under the protection of the Islamic community, those captured from the Muslim side will live suffering the cruelties inflicted upon them by the enemies of Islam and executing the heavy tasks imposed by them. This can never be just. Indeed, this can, only become the cause of the destruction of the Muslim community. A situation will then come up in which war can only serve to annihilate the Islamic community. Therefore, under a context in which slavery was not prohibited world wide, it would have been suicidal if Islam had ventured to prohibit slavery. It was then for the same reason that Allah, the Knower of all Space-Time, refrained from prohibiting slavery.

In reality, because slavery existed in the world as an established institution, there was bound to be greater harm than good if Islam had abolished it. Islam, while allowing for slavery, did, however, teach that the slave and the master were brothers one to the other and that the slave had rights of his own and that he was to be treated humanely, as against cruelly and that he was never to be insulted. Thus, for a slave living under a Muslim, slavery would never be a burden. Furthermore, it is possible for him to become a free man at any point in time. He can attain his freedom even when he is inclined towards it.

22
SUNNI-SHIA DEBATE! / The Creed Of Shia
« on: February 03, 2013, 09:12:21 AM »
Shi'ism and Islam are indeed different religions. The divergence of Shiism from Islam can be summarized from the books which they consider most authentic, and the statements of their most respected scholars. Some of the proofs available to support this position are as follows:

1) The Imami Shia do not believe in or accept authentic texts such as Sahih Al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood or others. Indeed, regarding Imam Al-Bukhari, a shia scholar, Abdullah as-Subayti states: "He has transmitted strange and even abominable tales unsuitable even for the minds of superstitious Berbers and old Sudani women." (Taht Rayah al-Haqq) .

2) According to Imami Shia doctrine, the vast majority of the sahaba were liars and apostates.

One of the leading scholars of the shia, al-Kashshi, reported that Abu Ja'far said: "The people (including the sahaba) all became apostates after the Prophet's death except for three." When asked who they were, he replied, "Al-Miqdad ibn Aswad, Abu Dharr, and Salman as mentioned in the verse, 'If he (Muhammad) dies or is killed, will you then turn on your heels.'" (Rijal al-Kashshi pp12-13) .

In the book "Al-Kafi fil-Usool, a collection of ahadith attributed to the Prophet SAWS and some of the Imams of the Shia, and held in the same esteem amongst shia as Sahih Bukhari is amongst the Ahl us-Sunnah, we find the following:

"Obedience to 'Ali is true humility and disobedience to him is disbelief in Allah." (vol.10 p.54)

"Whoever sets up another Imam besides 'Ali and delays 'Ali's caliphate is a polytheist." (vol.10 p.55) (this "hadith" refers to everyone who accepts the validity of the caliphates of Abu Bakr, 'Umar and Uthman. The Shia claim that the caliphate was stolen from 'Ali, and only he and his descendants have the right to rule the Muslims)

"Syrians are worse than the Romans, Madinites worse than Meccans, and Meccans openly disbelieve in Allah." (vol.10 p.107)

In explanation of the verse: "On the day when the wrong-doer bites his hands saying, 'O if only I had taken the right path with the Prophet! O woe is me, if only I had not taken so-and-so as a friend!" (25:27-28) One of the most highly respected scholars of Tafseer amongst the Shia, Al-Qummi, states that "so-and-so" is 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab (RA). (astagfiruallah)

In reference to Talhah (RA) and az-Zubayr (RA), Al-Qummi claims that Abu Ja'far said that the following verse was revealed about them; "Verily the doors of Heaven will not open for those who deny Our signs and are arrogant towards them, nor will they enter paradise until a camel passes through the eye of a needle."(7:40) He also adds that the camel in the verse refers to their camel. Thus, according to Al-Qummi, Talhah(RA) and az-Zubayr(RA), who were both amongst the ten who received glad tidings of paradise from the ProphetSAWS himself, will never enter paradise!

Imami Shia doctrine holds that most of the sahaba were the worst sort, liars and apostates all. There is even a special dua, called "Dua Sanamay Quraysh" (The two Idols of the Quraysh). In this prayer (falsely attributed to Abdullah ibn Abbas) Both Abu Bakr(RA) and 'Umar(RA) are cursed, and called "the two idols of the Quraysh". Shirk(disbelief) is attributed to the two caliphs, and their daughters, Ayesha and Hafsah, both wives of the ProphetSAWS, are vilified. The prayer is published with the endorsement of the following major Imami Shia scholars:

1) Ayatallah al-Udhma Muhsin al-Hakeem .

2) Ayatallah al-Udhma Abul-Qasim al-Khoi .

3) Ayatallah al-Udhma Roohullah al-Khomeini .

4) Ayatallah al-Udhma Mahmood al-Husaini .

5) Ayatallah al-Udhma Muhammad Kadhim Shri'atmadari .

6) The chief scholar 'Ali Taqi at-Taqwa .

Imami Shia doctrine in fact holds that all who do not follow their doctrine are disbelievers and apostate from Islam, with the following hadith from Al-Kafi cited in support:

"Doubt about the Imamate of 'Ali is like doubt about the mission of Muhammad SAWS and one who doubts both should be killed if possible, if he claims to be a Muslim. On the other hand, disbelievers are like the Jews and Christians and should not be killed for these reasons." (al-Kafi vol.6 p.393)

3) The Imami Shia have not only misinterpreted the Qur'an, but they have made actual alterations in the text itself:

The false verse, "And we made 'Ali your in-law" has been added to Surah Al-Inshirah (Al-Kafi p.289)

In 25:74, the verse "And make us a leader (Imam) for the God-fearing" is replaced with "And make for us a leader (Imam) from among the God-fearing."

Of even greater audacity is the addition of an entirely fabricated surah to the Qur'an, called, "Surah al-Walayah" Translation of this false surah is as follows:

1) O believers, believe in the Prophet and the guardian (wali), whom We sent to guide you to the straight path.

2) A Prophet and a Guardian, one from the other, and I am the Knower, the Wise.

3) Verily those who fulfill their covenant to Allah will have gardens of pleasure.

4) And for those who deny our signs when they are read to them,

5) Verily they will have a terrible place in Hell when they are called for on the Day of Judgment, 'Where are the wrong-doers who denied the messengers?'

6) He only created them in truth and Allah will surely make them victorious until a time in the near future.

7) Glorify the praises of your Lord and 'Ali is among the witnesses.

But perhaps the greatest level of audacity is in the assertion that the Qur'an that we now possess is not the true Qur'an at all, but rather a fabrication:

"Abu Baseer reported that he said to Imam Ja'far, "O Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq) What is Mushaf Fatimah?" He replied "It is a Qur'an containing three times what is found in your copy of the Qur'an; yet by Allah, it does not contain even a single letter from your Qur'an." (Al-Kafi p.385)

4) The Imami Shia consider the Imams to be utterly infallible, incapable of even the slightest error. Hence following them, according to Shia doctrine is obligatory on all true Muslims until the Day of Judgment. In fact, reverence for these Imams is so great amongst the Shia that the Imams are believed to be on a level above even the Prophets or the highest ranking angels; A level wherein even the particles of the universe are subservient to them.

Khomeini asserts in his book, "Al-Hukumah Al-Islamiyyah", "Certainly the Imam has a dignified station, a lofty rank, a creational caliphate, and a sovereignty and mastery over all the atoms of creation. It is definitely a basic belief in our school of thought, that our Imams occupy a station unattainable by either an angel or a major Prophet. And, according to our narrations of hadith, before the creation of the universe, the greatest Prophet SAWS, and the Imams - peace be upon them - were in the form of light which Allah made orbit His throne and gave rank and proximity known only to Him. As was narrated in the hadith on miraaj, Angel Jibreel said, 'If I were to have come an inch closer, I would have been burnt up.' - that is, by the intensity of the Imam's light. It has also been narrated by them, - may peace be on them - that, 'We have certain states in relation to Allah not allowed to an angel or a great Prophet.' A similar status is accorded to Fatimah az-Zahra - may peace be on her..."

and in the same book, Khomeini also states regarding the Imams: "...because we cannot imagine the Imams being forgetful or negligent, and we believe that they perceive all things which could benefit muslims..." and "The Imam's teachings are like the Qur'an...they must be implemented and followed." This last statement finds it's support in a chapter of Al-Kafi entitled: "Surely people have no Truth except what came from the Imams and everything which did not come from them is false."

The Imams are thought to have absolute and infinite knowledge, despite what Allah says in the Quran; "Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with Allah (alone). It is He who sends down rain, and it is he that knows what is in the wombs. Nor does anyone know what it is that he will earn tomorrow, nor does anyone know in what land he is to die. Verily with Allah is full knowledge and He is acquainted (with all things)"(31:34)

This incredible belief that the Imams know the unseen can be amply attested by the following chapter headings in Al-Kafi fil-Usool.

1) Chapter: The Imams have knowledge of All that was given to the angels and the Prophets. (Al-Kafi p.255)

2) Chapter: The Imams know when they will die, and they only die by their choice. (Al-Kafi p.258)

3) Chapter: The Imams have knowledge of the past and future; and nothing is hidden from them. (Al-Kafi p.260)

Clearly, the book Al-Kafi fil Usool contains such extreme statements of kufr (disbelief) and shirk (polytheism) that it alone is sufficient to push anyone who believes in it into the Hellfire for eternity. Yet Ayatallah Khomeini states that the sum total of his religion is contained in it, saying: "Do you think it is enough for our religious life to have it's laws summed up in Al-Kafi and then placed upon a shelf?" (Al-Hukumah Al-Islamiyyah p.72)

What Do Scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah in the Past and Present say about Shia (Rafidah)? :

1) Imam Ash-Shafi'i: On one occasion Imam Shafi'i said concerning the Shia,

"I have not seen among the heretics a people more famous for falsehood than the Raafidi* Shia." and on another occasion he said; "Narrate knowledge from everyone you meet except for the raafidi* Shia, because they invent ahadith and adopt them as part of their religion." (Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah) *

(Some shia at the time of the Alid Imam Zayd ibn 'Ali demanded that he make a declaration of innocence (tabarra) from whoever disagreed with 'Ali's right to be Imam. When Zayd refused, they rejected him, and became known as the "raafida" or rejectors. Those who followed Imam Zayd became known as Zaydis, and have very little difference from mainstream Islam. The Raafidi evolved into the the various Imami shia sects, the largest of which is the Ithna 'Ashari.)

2) Imam Abu Hanifah: It is reported that often Imam Abu Hanifah used to repeat the following statement about the raafidi Shia; "Whoever doubts whether they are disbelievers has himself committed disbelief."

3) Imam Malik: Once when asked about the raafidi Shia, Imam Malik said; "Do not speak to them or narrate from them, for surely they are liars." During one of Imam Malik's classes, it was mentioned that the raafidi Shia curse the sahaba. Imam Malik recited the verse, "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those with him are harsh with the disbelievers and gentle among themselves. So that the disbelievers may become enraged with them." (48:29) He then said, "Whoever becomes enraged when the sahaba are mentioned is the one about whom the verse speaks." (Tafseer al-Qurtubi)

4) Abu Zur'ah ar-Razi: He said of the raafidi Shia doctrine of cursing the sahaba, "If you see someone degrade any of the companions of the ProphetSAWS know that he is a disbeliever. Because the ProphetSAWS was real, what he brought was the truth and all of it was conveyed to us by way of the sahaba. What those disbelievers wish to do is cast doubt on the reliability of our narrators in order to invalidate the Qur'an and Sunnah. Thus the disbelievers are the ones most deserving of defamation."

5) Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi: During the period of Muslim rule in Spain, Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm would often debate with the Catholic priests about their religious texts. He brought before them evidence of textual distortions in the Bible and the loss of the original manuscripts. When they replied by pointing out the Shia claims that the Qur'an has been distorted and altered, Ibn Hazm informed them that Shia claims were not valid evidence because the shia were not themselves muslims.

6) Imam Al-Alusi: He declared the raafidi Shia disbelievers because of their defamation of the sahaba. His position was based on the rulings of Imam Malik and other scholars. In response to their claim to be followers of the Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet'sSAWS family) Al-Alusi said, "No, they are really followers of the devils and the Ahl al-Bayt are innocent of them."

7) Muhammad Rasheed Rida: This scholar was among those who worked sincerely for rapproachment between the shia and the sunni, and they in turn pretended moderation for his benefit. However, in the midst of his efforts, they caught him by surprise by presenting him with a number of their books which slander Islam. He then replied in a paper called As-Sunnah wa Ash-Shia in which he exposed their false doctrines and idolatrous practices.

8) Dr. Hilali: After living close to the shia for some years, the famous Moroccan scholar, Dr. Hilali wrote a paper on them in which he declared them to be disbelievers.

9) Abul-A'la Maududi: This great Pakistani scholar wrote an introduction to the book, "Ar-Riddah bain al-Ams wa al-Yaum" In it was written, regarding the Imami Ja'fari Shia, "despite their moderate views (relative to other shia sects), they are swimming in disbelief like white bloodcells in blood or like fish in water."

10) among the other contemporary scholars who have expressed similar views are: Sheikh Abdul 'Aziz ibn Baz, Sheikh Nassiraddin Al-Albani, Allama Ash-Shanqiti, Sheikh An-Nashashibi, Imam Ahmad Ameen, and Dr. Rashaad Salim.

Taqiyyah or Calculated Deception

One other Imami Shia doctrine that must be related is the doctrine of Taqiyyah, or dissimulation, (i.e. calculated deception). In support of this doctrine of deception, the shia attribute the following to Abu Abdullah (Ja'far as-Sadiq):

"Nine tenths of religion is taqiyyah (dissimulation), hence one who does not dissimulate has no religion." (Al-Kafi vol.9 p.110)

"He who conceals his religion has saved it, and he who makes it public has destroyed it."

"A believer who does not dissimulate is like a body without a head." (Tafseer al-Askari)

"Mix with them(i.e. non-shia) externally but oppose them internally." (Al-Kafi vol.9 p.116)

Concerning the verse, "Verily the most noble of you in Allah's sight is the most God-fearing(atqaakum)" , the shia attribute the following interpretation of "atqaakum": "That is, your deeds done by taqiyyah(dissimulation) (Al-I'tiqadat)

It is interesting to contrast this doctrine of calculated deception with Allah's statement in the Holy Qur'an: "Surely those who hide from people the clear proofs and guidance, which we clarified in the Book(Qur'an), will be cursed by Allah and all those who curse." (2:159)

And the statement of the Prophet SAWS who said: "Whoever is asked for knowledge and conceals it will have a bridle of fire around his neck on the Day of Judgment." (Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi)

I should stress that not all who are called shia hold to these deviant and idolatrous beliefs. As mentioned earlier, the Zaydi Shia hold no real differences of aqeedah, but only the political position that the Caliph should be from the descendants of 'Ali.

I am not writing this to insult anyone, nor do I wish to create fitnah. However, when the issue arises, I am compelled to state what I know. Anything I have stated correctly is from Allah, and any mistakes are from myself or shaytan
http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=73
http://www.islamawareness.net/Deviant/Shia/shia_creed.html

23
In Other Religions / WOMEN IN HINDUISM:
« on: January 31, 2013, 11:57:00 PM »
Is not the Hindu vision which teaches that goddesses bless the
place wherein the woman is worshipped more acceptable to woman
than the Qur'an?
It is on the basis of the 56th verse of the third chapter of
Manusmrithi that such a claim has been made. The verse is as follows:
Yathra nariyasthu poojendye raamanade thatra devakam
Yathrai thasthuna poojendye sarvasthrathafala Kriya
“Where women are worshipped, goddesses abide in joy. Where
they are not worshipped, all deeds performed therein become of no
consequence.”
Before the discussion on the meaning of woman-worship
mentioned in Manusmrithi, it is the Hindu idea of the woman that
must first be examined. For, it is from that viewpoint that all laws
concerning her are formulated.
The status of the woman that prevailed during the age of the
Rig Veda was indeed a pathetic one. In the thinking of those times,
she was one who could never be trusted and was the one who had the
heart of a jackass. Urvashi, who was an Apsaras (goddess), tells her
lover Pururavas thus: “O Pururavas! die not, flee not; may not the
frenzied wolves tear thee apart. Verily, there must never be the
companionship of women. For their hearts are as the heart of the
Hyena. There can never be the company of women. Go back to thine
home.” (Rigvedia Shathapath brahmanam 11:5, 1:10 as quoted by
D.D. Kosambi, Myth and Reality, p. 105)
This has been mentioned in the Rig Veda compilation as well.
Pururavo Yamrathama prapaptha
Matha Vrakaso ashivasa ukshan
Navayasthrina ni sakya nisanthi
Salavya Kanam hrathyanenyatha
(Rig Veda 10:95:15)
As for the Upanishads, they entertain a wholly negative vision
with regard to woman. Woman is the cause of all misery in the world.
The woman, the embodiment of all sins, is the fuel of Hell fire. Look at
some of the verses in the Yagnavalkopanishad:
Jawalana athi duryepi sarasa api neerasa sthreey hi
narakagneena minthanam charudarunam
(Shlokam 16)
“The woman, who burns from afar, and who apparently seems
to be pleasing but is in reality displeasing, although beautiful, terrible as
the fuel of Hell fire.”
Kamanamna Kirathena vikeerna mugadachethas,
Naryo naravikam ganamanga bandanavagura
(Shlokam 17)
“Women are the nets thrown in by Kirathan, the god of sex, to
trap men who are, as it were, the birds”
Sarvesham dosharathnanam susemudgikayanaya
Dhuka shyamkalaya nithyamalamasthu ma masthriya
(Shlokam 19)
“May God save thee from woman, who is a mine of all sins and
is the very chain of all misery”
The Bhagavad Gita, too, has considered women to be a lowly
state
Mamhi partha vyapashrithya yepisyu papayonay
Sthreeyo vaishyasthathe shudrasthe piyanthi bram gathim
(9:30)
“O Arjuna! Even those born in sin like the women, Vaishyas,
and Shudras can attain to salvation if they seek refuge in me”
Even the advice of Manusmrithi, which taught that the woman
was to be worshipped, was that she was never to be allowed any
freedom whatsoever.
Pitharakshathi Kawmare bhartharakshathi yawane
Rakshanthi sthavise puthra nah sthree swathanthrya
marhathi
(9:3)
“Woman who is protected in her adolescence by the father, in
her youth by her husband, and in her old-age by her son, deserves no
freedom at any time”
It has been claimed on the authority of this verse that
Manusmrithi teaches that the woman is to be protected under all
circumstances. Any doubt, however, may be dispelled by the shlokam
that immediately precedes this verse.
Aswathanthraha sthreeyaha karyaha purushyr swirthi
Vanisham
Vishyeshda cha sajjanthya samsthapya athmam vashe
“Woman must not, by night or by day, be granted any freedom,
whatsoever, by her husband and other relatives. Even if they be
immoral, she must still remain within their power”
The laws of Manusmrithi are such that woman is depicted
merely as an instrument of man’s sexual gratification. This will become
clear to any who reads the laws described in the fifth chapter and the
ninth chapter.
What then is the point in saying that Manu had said that woman
is to be worshipped? We have already seen that this was mentioned in
the third chapter, 56th verse, of Manusmrithi
To understand what has been intended here, it would be
sufficient to carefully read from the 55th to the 62nd stanzas. The
summary of these statements are as follows: “ Fathers, brothers,
husbands, and brothers-in-law who wish for great good fortune should
revere these women and adorn them. The deities delight in places
where women are revered, but where women are not revered all rites
are fruitless. Where the women of the family are miserable, the family
is soon destroyed, but it always thrives where the women are not
miserable. Homes that are cursed by women of the family who have
not been treated with due reverence are compleatly destroyed, as if
struck down by witchcraft. Therefore men who wish to prosper should
always revere those women with ornaments, clothes, and food at
celebrations and festivals. There is unwavering good fortune in a family
where the husband is always satisfied by the wife, and the wife by the
husband. If the wife is not radiant she does not stimulate man; and
because the man is unstimulated the making of children does not
happen. If the woman is radiant, the whole family is radiant, but if she
is not radiant the whole family is not radiant. Through bad marriages,
the neglect of rites, failure to study the Veda, the transgressing against
priests, families cease to be families.”
It becomes clear from these statements as to how woman is to
be worshipped. Woman is to be worshipped by providing her with
clothes, ornaments and food. Why are these to be given? woman
must be healthy;and beautiful so that her man’s passion is aroused.
Woman is to make her body beautiful by adorning it with clothes and
ornaments; that the man may be attracted by her. Woman is to be so
worshipped that she be made a fitting decoration for the man’s
bedroom. This is the law of Manu. Manu has nothing to say of the
rights of woman.
The laws of Manusmrithi consider woman to be an individual
forever bound by the chains of family relationships, with no rights of
her own. The verses of the fifth chapter starting from 147 to 169 are
all about the woman. Even if she were to become a widow in her
youth, she is not to marry again. Even if her husband induclges in
adultery, she is still to consider him on equal footing with God. However,
the woman who commits in adultery was to be thrown to the dogs in
public.Woman is not entitled to any share in the wealth of the family.
The wages for her labour will be half that of the man. So goes the
laws of Manusmrithi concerning woman.
The Devadasi system was a cruel and perverted institution
which prevailed in India. There is evidence to show that the Devadasi
system began in the Saptasindhu (india) right from the time of the
Atharva Veda. The Devadasis were shudra women who had been
consecrated to the temple as the maid servants of the gods. The function
of the Devadasis was to fulfill the sexual needs of the upper castes
who were the representatives of the gods on earth. This, in effect,
clearly meant that they were the prostitutes of the temples.
It may be understood from a single reading of the Mahabarath
and the Ramayan that the Devadasis were an essential part of ancient
Indian society. Dasharat had, in the army that he had prepared for
Shri Ram, included women who made a living out of trading their
physical charms. While proceeding to the Battle of Kurukshetra,
chariots carrying Devadasis accompanied the legions of the Pandavas
and the Kauravas. Devadasis were in the forefront to receive Shri
Ram when he returned from his exile in the jungle. It was again the
Devadasi community which had come to receive King Kaushika when
he returned to the capital city after enduring severe trials. The
Mahabharath relates that it was fifty young girls, at the very sight of
whom one’s blood would boil with excitement, who welcomed Shuka
who had come to visit the wise seer, Janakadika. It was again a
Devadasi whom the King Anuga employed to get what he wanted by
using her to entice Rishyaganga who had never set his eyes upon a
woman in his life time.
The tradition of carrying away and then marrying women also
existed in ancient India. These marriages are named Raakshasam. It
is the decree of Manusmrithi that the Raakshasam marriage is a matter
of right for the Kshatriya (3:23,24). It can be seen from the Puranas
that there were many who married in this fashion. Look at the very
first marriage of Shri Krishna himself. It was Rukmani, the daughter
of Bhishmak, the King of Vidarbha, who was the first wife of Shri
Krishna. It was during the preparations for her marriage to the cousin
of Shri Krishna that Shri Krishna carried her off and married her on
the day before the wedding.
Sati was yet another cruel tradition which prevailed in India.
The law of Sati was that the wives were to immolate themselves in
the funeral pyre of their dead husbands. The woman who performed
Sati was then honoured as the Satidevi.
The British government never sought to control Sati. They never
liked to displease the Hindu priests. The British would thus maintain
that the practice of the widows immolating themselves at the funeral
pyre of their husbands was one that was based on Hindu beliefs and
that it was made quite clear within the accepted canons of law and
that, as such, to abolish it would be an act of intervention into the
preserves of the Hindu religion itself. The man who brought forth a
powerful opposition against their practice was Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
It was after all his efforts to prevent the wife of his brother from
immolating herself at the funeral prayer of her husband had failed and
as he was thus forced to witness with his own eyes the horrible scene
of her burning away to her end that he turned into a crusader against
Sati. It was, however, only after a prolonged and sustained campaign
of opposition against Sati that, in 1929, Sati was declared illegal during
the reign of Lord William Benedict.
Concerted efforts are, however, being made today to revive
Sati and such other malpractices. It has not been too long since we
read of Roopkanwar from Devata village of Rajasthan who was thrown
into the flames of the funeral pyre of her husband.
Another law that prevailed in ancient India was that the widows
who did not perform Sati were to shave their heads and live in complete
isolation within the society. Even those small children, who were all of
six or seven years, who became widows after their child marriage,
were to shave their heads and remain as widows for the rest of their
lives. These widows who would then forced to live like beggars were
to have but one meal a day. On the days of the new moon they were
to confine themselves day and night and were never to partake of
even a drop of water. Indeed, it is greatly possible that the Satidevis,
so highly praised as the women who chose Sati of their own accord,
were, in reality, women who chose ghasty end in the flames of self
immolation as a better option than a life that would be so turned into a
prolonged torture.
On one side we see that even while the encroachment upon
women’s rights prevailed in ancient India, the worship of women, too,
existed alongside. It is also claimed, making reference to the worship
of goddesses, that women are given a very high position in the great
vision of Hinduism which teaches that women are to be worshipped.
This claim is, however, without substance. There is no evidence to
show that the position of woman has in any way evolved from the
vedic stand that the woman had the heart of a Hyena. To imagine that
women enjoyed a privileged position simply because they were
worshipped as goddesses would be but an exercise in stupidity. Sati is,
after all, the most cruel and extreme form of the encroachment upon
the rights of woman. This is made clear by the fact that the woman
who undergoes Sati would thenceforth be known as Satidevi.
The origins of goddess worship is to be found in the blind and
perverted notions of sexuality. The names Subagor, Bagaradya,
Bagamalini and the like have been used to describe goddesses. Bagath
has the meaning vagina. The meaning of the aforementioned
descriptions are respectively ‘She who has good vagina’, ‘She who is
worshipped in the ...........’, and ‘She who bears the ..........’. Amongst
the more shorter and concise names, Pragathba means ‘she who has
attained to maturity, she who impassions her husband and she who is
skilled in the act of sexual intercourse’. Vidagda means ‘she who is
the least ashamed of the sexual act and who is adept at the different
variations thereof’ (V.V. Shrijan: Ya devi sarvaboodeshu, p.19)
Where, indeed, is the Qur'anic vision which declared that the
woman possessed an independent existence of her own and that she,
too, had her own legal rights as well and which saw her as the light of
the house and as the mother of society? And where stands the vision
of the Manusmrithi which states that the woman is to be worshipped
that she may be made a decoration of the bed chamber of her man? In
reality, both these views exhibit such a wide range of disparity as to
never call forth even the most remote comparison.

24
In Islam / WHY ISLAM ALLOW POLYGAMY :
« on: January 26, 2013, 05:56:26 AM »

When we speak of polygamy the first thing that is to be
understood is the fact that it was never an institution that was introduced
by the Qur'an or Islam. It was an institution that generally prevailed in
ancient cultures. Look at what the Encyclopedia Britannica writes: “It
may be seen that in most of the ancient cultures either polygamy or
the tradition of keeping concubines existed. In China, where there
existed the above practices apart from the lawfully permitted wife, it
was never seen to be against the moral code or decency. The tradition
of maintaining concubines existed in Japan up to 1880. Even though
polygamy was accepted in ancient Egypt, it was not commonplace.
However amongst the royal families it was common.” (Vol. xviii, p.188)
It may be recalled that except for a particular period, polytheism
was common in all the ancient communities among the Romans. In
certain communities of central Africa and Australia the rich would
even compete with one another inthe matter of number of wives, they
made of young girls who could not be married off by their parents.. It
is further given to understand that the young men in such communities
thus finding it difficult to marry and that many amongst them would
then take in marriage the widows of their fathers after their father’s
death.. It is even said that the Monomattawo Kings of Zimbabwe had
as many as three thousand wives. `The Guinnes Book of World
Records’ has recorded the head of the Batuba, Bakethe races of Zaire
as possessing the most number of wives. They are said to have had
many hundreds of wives!
Many of the Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible had
more than one wife. The Book of Genesis makes it quite clear that
Abraham, who is described as the ideological father of the Jewish
community, had two wives in Sarah and Hagar (16:1-3). It can also be
seen from the Bible that after the death of Sarah, he married a woman
named Kedura and that besides this, he mad many other wives as well
(Genesis 25:1-6)
Jacob, who was the father of the tribe of Israel had four wives
named Leya (Genesis 29:21), Laban (29:29), Bilha (30:4) and Silha
(30:9). As for David who is known as the author of the Psalms, it can
be seen that he had besides the wives Meekal (1 Samuel 18:29) Batt
Sheba (2 Samuel 11:27), Abeenovam (2 Samuel 3:3), Abeegayal, Maky,
Hageethi, Abeethal, Eggai (2 Samuel 3:4-5), had many other as well.
His son Solomon, who is known as author of the Proverbs had seven
hundred wives and three hundred concubines! (1 King 11:3) Indeed,
as a token of the greatness of many individuals, the Old Testament
cites that ‘they had many wives and sons! (I Chronicles 7:3). These
instances are reffered only to show that Polytheism was commonplace
during the times of the Old Testament.
There is a little evidence in the earliest sources to show that the
Christian religion which came as the successor of the Jewish one, had
held polygamy as abominable. There is not a single statement which
prohibits polygamy anywhere in the gospels, the book of acts, the book
of revelation, the apostelic writings or even in the letters of Paul. But
the writings of Paul have discouraged even the very act of marriage
itself. The disciples of Paul who were taught that ‘it is best not to
marry’ (1 Corithians 7:38) were inclined towards ascertism and as for
those who could not manage that came to the stand that one, and only
one, wife may be taken.
However, there have also been moves adopted against this stand
within the Christian community itself. The Mormons of America were
a people who advocated the cause of polygamy. They claimed that
Jesus Christ had married and that he had many wives as well. They
contended that since Christ had appeared to Mary Magdalene, Solomi
and other women after his resurrection he was more intimately closer
to these women than to his apostles and that this, therefore, showed
that it was probable that they were, indeed, his wives. The Christian
view thus remains that polygamy was permitted in the earliest periods.
This has been mentioned in the Encyclopedia Britannica. “Polytheism
was recognised by Christian Church during the middle ages. It existed
in its own right. Indeed, as it was permitted both by the Church and
Nation it existed legally in many places right up to the middle of the
sixteenth century.” (Vol XIV, p.950)
As for India, it may be seen that there existed the tradition of
taking more than one women as wives right from the time of the Rig
Veda. It is further given to understand that Indra, the most important
god in the Rig Veda, himself had more than one wife. There is a verse
(or Sukta) attribute to Indrani, the most important of all in the wives
of Indra (Rig Veda, Mandal 10, Sukta 17). The main focus of this
verse is on a formula to harass the co-wives. It is a formula by means
of which the attraction of the King towards a co-wife may be eliminated
and his love be made to flow towards herself instead. From this it may
be understood that polygamy prevailed universally during the period of
the Vedas.
polygamy existed even during the classical period. It is well
known that Dasharat, the father of Shri Ram who is the hero of the
Ramayan, had the wives Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumithra. As for Shri
Krishna, the hero of the Mahabharath, the Puranas report that he had
as many as sixteen thousand and eight wives. These wives of Shri
Krishna included eight in Rukmini, Jambavathi, Sathyabama, Kalindi,
Mithravandha, Saraswathy Kaikeyi and Laxmana along with the ten
thousand daughters of Narakasura.
By the time age of the Smrithi had commenced, the tradition of
polygamy also became based on the caste system. The law of the
Yajnavalkya Smrithi decreed that the Brahiman was to have three
wives the Kshatriya two and the vaishya and the Shudra were to have
one each.
Thissovarname poorvyana two thathika yathakramam
Brahman Kshathriya visham barya swa shudrajanmana
(Yajnavalkyasmrithi 1:57)
“In accordance with the caste order the Brahman may three
wives, the Kshatriya two and the vaishya one. The shudra can marry
only from his own caste”.
Even in modern societies in which fidelity to one wife is claimed
it is a fact the practice of having sexual relations with more than one
woman is quite common. The only difference being that it has been
referred to by different pet names. While the rich man fulfills his sexual
desire in the call girl engaged in ‘Public’ relations, the ordinary man
seeks gratification at the brothels. Studies have shown that those who
have not approached the prostitute, called by different names, even
once are very few indeed. Modern society can hardly seen it as a
crime. In addition to this, statistics reveal that sexual perversions a like
wife swapping and group sex are on the increase among the elite in
society. In reality, many of those who strongly speak out against
polygamy are themselves slave to such sexual misconducts..
It is an incorrect approach to consider as mere coincidence the
sexual relationship which Marx maintained with his concubine Helena
besides his relation with his wife concubine Helena besides his relation
with his wife Jenny. It is pointless to turn one’s face away from the
lesson provided by bare facts like the atheist ideologue, Bertrand Russell,
having four wives and of his having, in addition, relationship with the
wife of his own son as well as with many other women. We must be
able to deal constructively and impartially with the reality which they
prove.It will then be understood that monogamy is a tradition that cannot,
at least for some individuals, satisfy the very natural longings that run
deep within them. It is futile, therefore, to engage in a critical discussion
of polytheism while closing our eyes to this reality.
The Qur'an does permit polygamy. The verse which provides
this permission is as follows: “If ye fear that ye shall not be able to
deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two, or
three, or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with
them), then only one, or that which your right hands possess. That will
be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.” (H.Q. 4:3)
As in the case with all other communities in the world, polygamy
did exist in Arabia sometimes to a degree that far outstripped all other
societies. In this matter, unrestricted freedom prevailed in Arabia.
The Qur'an brought about a regulation in these practice and restricted
the number of wives to four. That many prophets themselves possessed
numerous wives before their attaining prophethood makes it clear
that in Arabia there existed no restriction, whatsoever, in the number
of wives. Ameerathul Asad had eight wives while Noufal bin
Muawiyya Daylami had five. At the time of their embracing Islam,
the Prophet had asked them to maintain four wives of their own choosing
and to divorce the rest. In short, therefore, it was in a society where
there was unrestricted freedom to take any number of wives that the
law was enforced that four wives may be taken if it is possible to
show justice to each and if this is not possible, then to have just one.
The Qur'an does provide the permission to marry four wives, if
it is deemed necessary, subject to the condition that all be treated
impartially.
Moder age has established the practice of marrying not more
than one wife. However, while it restricts legal marriage to just one
wife, it does not see anything abhorrent in entertaining relationships
with call- girls and others of their like.
Which, then, is the more conducive code for woman ?
Islam does not recognize any extra-marital affairs no matter
what the name with which it is called. It is on the basis of this fact of
Islam being averse to all such relationships that this problem has to be
analyzed. In a country that is ruled by Islamic rule - adulterers, if their
guilt is proven, by the testimony of four eyewitnesses - will be subject
to a hundred lashes if they be unmarried and to death by stoning if
they are married. Indeed, the degree of abhorrence shown by Islamic
law towards these crimes is made manifest in these punishments. From
the view point of Islam, adultery becomes the very cause of the breakup
of the family, the which is the fundamental unit of the society, and
through this of the basis of all norms of morality as well. For this
reason, therefore, it is essential for an ideology which seeks to create
a society enshrined in righteousness to formulate laws and regulations
that serve to eliminate it completely. Along with this, however, there
must also be provisions that provide for the gratification of desires in a
manner compatible to human nature. Indeed, it is here that the wisdom
of Islam in permitting polygamy may be truly appreciated.
There are situations wherein polygamy becomes inevitable at
the personal as well as the social level within a society entrenched in
righteousness. Personal circumstances may be summarized as follows:
One: Man’s sexual urge. It is an uncontested fact that at least
in the case of some men, there are instances where sexual gratification
is hardly achieved through one woman alone. After all, sexual
relations are not possible with women during their periods of
menstruations, pregnancy and the like. During all such periods, there
may be men who cannot control their sexual urge. Before these men
there are but two options: Polygamy or adultery.
Two: Sexual impotence of the wife. Sometimes impotence in
women cannot be rectified through treatment. It is but natural that the
man will, however, need to have the means of fulfilling his desires
during such periods of inability of his wife. There can only be the
option of either Polygamy or adultery or else it must be divorce. These
are the only three ways out for the man. Adultery is, doubtless, immoral.
As for divorce, though permitted it must be avoidedas much as
possible. In such a context, polygamy becomes the best alternative.
Three: Barrenness of the wife. If the wife is barren, there are
three options before the man: (1) To live a life without having any off
spring. (2) To divorce the barren woman and to marry another. (3) To
marry another woman while maintaining the first wife.
The first option will be an act of cruelty to one’s self. The second
will be cruelty to the wife. After all, it was not her fault that she
ended up being barren. It is the third option which is humane. Through
it, the barren wife may find joy in looking after, and bringing up, the
children of her husband as her own. She is also thus enabled in fulfilling
her yearning for motherhood.
Four: Permanent illness of the wife. There are ailments that
prevent sexual relations as well as pregnancy. What are the husbands
of women with such disorders to do? There may also be those who
struggle to even perform the household chores due to such unending
health disorders. In all these cases the remedy often resorted to is
either adultery, divorce or polygamy. In divorcing a woman afflicted
with a permanent disorder, she is actually being forced into the street.
Here, too, the only humane solution to the problem is polygamy.
Certain religious texts prescribe divorce in all the aforementioned
circumstances. Look at the commandment of the Manusmrithi:
Vandhyashda methi Vedyabde
Deshamethu mruthapraja
Ekadashi Sthree janani
Sathyasthapriya vadinee (Manu Smrithi 9:81)
“A baran life may be superseded in the eighth year; one whose
children have died, in the tenth; one who bears (only) daughters, in the
eleventh; but one who says unpleasant things (may be superseded)
immediately”
The remedy prescribed by Atheists for such problems is also
divorce. Look at the solution prescribed by Bertrand Russell, the greatest
proponent of Atheism:
“Where a marriage is childless divorce may be often the right
solution even when both parties are doing their best to behave decently”
(Marriage and Morals, P.96)
In such instances, which option would a woman prefer for her
husband: polygamy, divorce or adultery? A woman imbued with righteousness
and love will definitely yearn for polygamy. Indeed, Islam
has permitted polygamy considering the security of the woman as
well. Here, we realize that the Qur’anic vision is, indeed, a humane
one.
There are also instances wherein polygamy becomes a social
necessity. These can be enumerated as follows:
One: The disparity in man-woman population ratio. This can
take place in two ways. As a natural phenomenon and as a result of
war. An understanding of history brings forth a certain reality before
us. It is the fact that in all societies - in all ages - the population of
women have surpassed that of men. Modern science does offer an
explanation for this state of affairs. Although the genetic code in humans
is so constituted that the differences of the sexes is almost in
proportionate measure, out of the off - springs born, the female ones
will be more in number than the male ones since the defense mechanism
of the female foetus against infections and diseases is much
more vigorous than in the case of the male. It is seen that this disparity
in numbers stand to the tune of one thousand male for every one
thousand and ten female children born.
The situation that manifests itself after a war is another such
instance. Naturally, it is overwhelmingly the male population that actively
takes part in war. Thus, there comes about a substantial disparity
in the male-female ratio. In the Second World War, fifty lakhs of
Germany’s male population lost their lives while the male-female ratio
before the war stood on a proportional basis there, after the war the
ratio was set off balance by an excess of five hundred thousand woman.
Woman in Japan and Germany resorted to staging demonstrations to
meet their demand for husbands. Boards reading ‘Wanted: an evening
guest’ appeared in front of their homes. This is, however, restricted by
no means to the case of Germany alone. This is, indeed, the natural
course in any country coming out of the ravages of war.
Whenever the female population in a country exceeds the number
of males in it, the society may resort to three options: 1 . E a c h
male is to marry one woman alone. The remaining women are to live
suppressing their sexual longings. 2. Each man is to take one woman
in marriage. The remaining women may resort to adultery. 3. Men,
with the financial capability as well as the conviction that they will be
able to do justice to their wives, may take more than one woman in
marriage.
Which of these is the humane option? When the case of women
who are unable to live without men is considered, the first option is,
indeed, a most cruel and unnatural one. As for the second option, it
will, doubtless, serve only to destroy all morality and society itself. It is
the third option, and the third option alone, which those desirous of a
morally upright and progressive society will choose to adopt. It was,
after all, for this very reason that the World Youth Organization that
gathered in Munich in 1948 recommended polygamy as a viable solution
for the woes of Germany. Indeed, this has been the solution recommended
by Islam all along. How is it then that the same solution
when declared by the World Youth Organization is found to be humane
but repulsive when declared by Islam?
What is the solution, which can be offered by the Christian
church, which holds that the Holy Spirit guides unto all truth for this
problem? What do they say should be the condition of those women
who come in excess? Does the church per chance think that they can
all be made nuns by enticing their minds within the myth that they are
the brides of the lord? Or will it be that the Church will support them in
their bid to trespass the boundaries of morality and engage in adultery?
In truth, it is a fact that those who boast that their religion recommends
monogamy have no idea, whatsoever, of the stance they
are to adopt with regard to the social situation where the number of
women are on the rise.
For the atheists who consider polygamy an abomination the only
solution for this social problem is recourse to adultery. Adultery, which
is accompanied by the unrestricted use of all means of abortion:
Bertrand Russell writes: “In view of the above circumstances it is
evident that so long as many men for ecnomic reasons find early marriage
impossible, while many women cannot marry at all equality as
between men and women demands a relaxation in the traditional standards
of feminine virtue. If men are allowed prenupital intercourse (as
in fact they are) women must be allowed to it also. And in all countries
where there is an excess of women it is an obvious injustice that women
who by arithmetical necessity must remain unmarried should be wholly
debarred from sexual experience. Doubtless the pioneers of the women’s
movement had no such consequences in view, but their modern
followers percieve them clearly and whoever opposes these deductions
must face the fact that he or she is not in favour of justice to the
female sex” (Marriage and morals, p.59)
It is Russell’s recommendation that in a society where free sex
is permitted child rearing must be restricted to married couples and
that all extra marital sexual relations must involve the use of the viable
methods of contraception.
Which then is the more humane recommendation: is it the
Qur'anic one which asks men to take up more than one woman in
marriage and to maintain strict equality between them in social circumstances
wherein there is a disparity in the male-female ratio or is
it the atheistic recommendation which suggests that women who come
in excess must take to adultery?
It is clear that, in reality, the woman is subject to the most cruel
treachery in the form of such extra-marital relationships. She can be
thrown out at any moment . She has no right, whatsoever, to associate
the child born off such relationships with its father for no method of
contraception is one hundred percent fool-proof. Furthermore, from
the time that her flesh begins to sag and the wrinkles to appear there
will be none to even consider her predicament. Which, indeed, is the
more honourable position: is it the status of a legally married wife who
has her own rights or is it the label of a prostitute? From the viewpoint
of Islam, any woman is entitled to her status as legally married wife
and to her own sovereign rights no matter whether she be the first or
the fourth wife. Which then is the more suitable option for the women:
to live as co-wife and to claim for herself and her children all the rights
that are due unto them and to become entitled to shares in the wealth
of the husband after his death or to live as a [harlot], as one without any
privileges, whatsoever, and to die miserably as a burden to society
itself?
Two: Protection of the widows and the orphans: It is the primary
duty of the society to protect the widows and the orphans. It
may be seen that Polygamy, at times, becomes expedient in satisfactorily
fulfilling this duty. For, it is the men who die in wars and in most
accidents in daily life. It is then that the widows and their orphaned
children increase and their protection becomes a duty of the society
itself.
Protection of the widows can hardly be conceived to be complete
by merely providing for food and shelter. Indeed, in many instances,
it is the young women who are destined to end up as widows.
Even if they have two or three children, as human beings endowed
with carnal desires, they will be subject to the desire to have sex.
Sexual desires cannot be fulfilled by receiving food, clothing and shelter.
To let them off in such fashion will ultimately serve only to force
them to take up unrighteous, immoral practices. Indeed, such a course
of action can serve only to disrupt all morality in society. They must,
therefore, be remarried. That is the right way of protecting the interests
of widows.
Who would come forward to marry the widows, especially
when they are widows with one or two children. Men could, in general,
hesitate to have widows as their first wives. As this hesitation is
but natural it is not fair that they should be criticized for it. It is here
that polygamy comes to the aid of the widows. If she is willing to be
the second or the third wife of a man, she is enabled to satisfy all the
rights that she is entitled to as a human being.
For the orphans, too, their mother’s re-marriage will provide
them with relief and security. Whatever the provisions available at an
orphanage, it can never have the homely atmosphere of a family. It is
in no insignificant way that the trauma of having been torn off from
their mother and placed in an orphanage affects the mind of such
children. At a time when they should be caressed and brought up in
their mother’s lap they should be there and there alone. They must be
provided the opportunity to live within the atmosphere of a family. The
re-marriage of the widow sets up the right opportunity for this to take
place. If the new husband of their mother is a man of righteousness
and religiosity, the orphans receive the same treatment as that from a
father along with a most satisfying family atmosphere. In truth, therefore,
this is, by far, a more complete life than the one lived out in an
orphanage.
Many religions actually recommend a life of perpetual sorrow
for the widows. Look at the judgment of the Manu Smrithi:
Aa Suthr maranalkshantha niyatha brahmacharini
Yodharmeka patninam kamkshanthi Thamanuthamam
(5:158)
“She should be long- suffering until death, self- restrained, and
chased, striving (to fulfil) the unsurpassed duty of women who have
one husband.”
It is from such legal prescriptions that, in due course of time,
the system of Sati that asks for the wife to die at the pyre of her
husband originated. Islam, on the other hand, understands the problems
of the widows and prescribes the apt solutions as well. It never
asks anybody to assume that there never is a problem while they are
in the very midst of such problems – problems which can be very well
be resolved through the option of polygamy. In such circumstances, it
gives the permission to take up more than one wife. Indeed, it is a
provision that provides for the security of the widows and the orphans.
It is for the same reason that in many such circumstances we
find polygamy coming to the aid of the woman.
It is clear here that the allegation that by allowing polygamy
Islam has degraded women is utterly baseless. Indeed, as far as anyone
seeking a recourse to a social system founded in righteousness is
concerned, they can, in no wise, push aside the merits of polygamy.

25
Feminism / DEMOCRACY & FREEDOM OF WOMEN:
« on: January 26, 2013, 05:39:34 AM »
Is Democracy really able to provide eternal values that will be
conducive to human salvation? In reality, Democracy is but the rule of
the majority. Can it be really possible for the majority in a society to
develop and formulate the laws that are to be necessarily followed for
the conduct of life of a people? The majority of the people in Europe
and America have accepted the system of dating wherein young girls
and boys come to know each other intimately, to intermingle with each
other freely and even to sleep together as well before marriage. It is,
after all, this acceptance and licentious ways that has served to torment
that society with the afflictions of deadly diseases like AIDS and of
other numerous mental disorders. In fact, the increasing rate of crime
and sex related diseases in third world countries, like India, which are
passionately following the western values owes this to their dependence
on democracy to deliver the right course of conduct. Here, the fact
becomes clear that it is the Lord God Himself, who created man, Who
is to teach how man is to lead his life.
What is modern democracy? It is nothing but a new name that
has been conferred upon Capitalism. Are not man and woman equal
in the capitalist world? For those who seek to give the answer merely
by looking upon the participating presence of both the sexes at the
offices, it may be possible to give ‘yes’ as an answer. However, they
refuse to accept the fact that Capitalism prevents woman from fulfilling
the role which nature has demanded of her. Modern Democracy can
very well ask woman to work alongside man, to earn her salary and
to go forth into the market place. But who, indeed, can ask man to
undertake pregnancy, to give birth and to breast-feed like the woman.
It may, perhaps, be possible for capitalism to ask the nation to provide
for woman who gives birth to a child who knows not its own father.
But, which, indeed, is the ideology that can confer solace upon the
woman who yearns to be fondled by the father of the child within her?
It may be possible for a consumerist culture to provide baby food for
the offspring that is born without ever being able to know the identity
of its own parents. But, which television ad is it that will provide
contentment to the minds of the little ones who yearn for the love of
the mother and the protection of the father?
The equality of the sexes is a myth; a myth that has been fostered
within human minds by democracy with the aid of the media. A woman
can never become likea man nor can a man ever become likea woman.
Western democracy, which teaches woman to be like man, is, in reality,
making the life of woman unbearable. Through this, it wrecks the
family and, with it, the very moral fibre of the society as well.
Capitalism sees every thing in the world as a part of
consumerism. Man and woman are no exceptions. Their emotions or
their problems are hardly issues of its concern. For it looks only to the
market. It thinks of nothing but the objects that will serve to accelerate
the various processes therein. This is the position of woman in
capitalism. She is always the model, the call-girl, the stenographer, the
secretary, the dancer, the actress; but never is she allowed to be the
mother by capitalism. After all, her being a mother would diminish her
market value; wouldn’t it?! Then she becomes an old woman; an
inhabitant of old-age homes; one destined to live the rest of her life
counting the days to her end.
The Qur'an, however, presents a most practical, yet moral,
system. A practical system which moves forward always in harmony
with human nature. In its vision, the human being is not only the one
with rosy cheeks and unwrinkled skin, but he is also the child within its
mother’s womb as also the aged one awaiting death. Indeed, its
command encompasses even the dead body which is never to be
violated.
The Qur'an is never in conformity with the utilitarianism of
Capitalism. This is the main point of divergence where the Qur'anic
vision differs from the view of modern democracy over the subject of
woman. The Qur'an never sees woman as a source of economic gain.
It never agrees to see her as an instrument of trade either; for she is
one half of the human soul; the veritable mother of society. It is her
motherhood which Islam considers first and foremost. It emphasizes
that it is on the lap of the mother that the very bedrock of the institution
of the family, the fundamental unit of morality that is so vital in society,
is nurtured. The Lord Creator, who revealed the Qur'an, is well aware
of the difficulties and limitations faced by a woman who becomes a
mother. Indeed, these have been given due consideration by the Qur'an.
The outlook of capitalism is that it is virginity - in fact, that hypocritical
pretentious virginity - that has the most ‘market value’. This has also
been the basic difference in the professed value - frameworks of Islam
and Capitalism.

26
In the Bible / WOMEN & BIBLE:
« on: January 26, 2013, 05:33:53 AM »
In actual fact the unrestricted freedom experienced by women
in the western world has only served to lead that society into a state of
chaos and disruption. Indeed, the scenes now being enacted there are
in protest against the anarchic situation created by Christian doctrine
itself. Even the most fanatical of Christian missionaries would hardly
endorse the statement that the freedom enjoyed by them owes itself
to Christian doctrine. Christian intellectuals are now engaged in thinking
out ways and means to extricate western civilization from the confines
of immorality. They have now recognized the fact that salvation through
the death on the cross can hardly be employed to practically cleanse
people of their sins. This would then mean that they themselves have
admitted that the freedom of western women cannot be the product
of Christian dogma. In truth, therefore, the people of the west began
to move away from established values in protest, and as a response, to
the world renunciation of Christian ascetism.
The Christian religion had but followed the Jewish principles.
No new belief, no ritual or code of morality can be seen to have been
taught by Christ. Christ had only claimed that he was a prophet sent
unto the lost sheep of the House of Israel (Mathew 15:25). He had
said that he was sent only to fulfill the code of the Old Testament
(Mathew 5:17). This meant that he was a prophet appointed to guide
the Israelites along the path of God. He had advised the people to
follow the laws revealed to Moses. Indeed, in the first centuries (after
the departure of Christ) the church had no rites or rituals, whatsoever,
which differed from those of the Jews in any manner; nor was there
any such law either.
It is the Jewish belief that the woman is the cause of sin entering
amongst mankind. The woman was, after all, the one who ate of the
forbidden fruit herself and then persuaded her mate to eat it too
(Genesis 3:12). She was the sinner who not only disobeyed God herself
but caused another to disobey as well. With the Christian adaptation
of this idea, she became, through her opening the door for sin, doomed
to carry the burden of guilt for having become the immediate cause of
the gruesome ordeal of the son of God which led to his death on the
cross.
The Hebrew term Baal means owner. The Old Testament of
the Bible refers to man as Baal. We see that according to the
commandments of the Old Testament, man is portrayed as one who
has total authority over woman. Indeed, the Bible has given man the
permission to even sell of his women - even if they were to be his own
daughters (Genesis 21:7). Among the Jews there was even the tradition
of selling off their own daughters at the slave market in order to repay
their debts (Nehemiah 5:5). Even in the matter of religious practice,
the Jews never granted women the freedom to act freely. The Book
of Numbers ruled that man had the authority to nullify the vows taken
up by his daughter or wife (30:12). That the wife was mentioned
together with slaves and domestic animals in the Ten Commandments
(Exodus 20:17, Deuteronomy 5:21) is an indication of the position of
woman amongst the Jews.
The Jews had looked upon the birth of a female child with
contempt. It was the law that if the mother gave birth to a female
child, she would be in a state of impurity for a period of time that
would be twice as long as the case if the child born was male (Leviticus
12:15). The ruling of the Old Testament was that woman had only
half the value of man (Leviticus 27:3-7).
Polygamy was universally practiced during the age of the Old
Testament. The Law commanded no restriction, whatsoever, in its
practice. Indeed, Solomon is said to have had seven hundred wives
and three hundred concubines! (I King 11:3). Moreover, according to
the Old Testament, only man had the right to divorce. A man could
divorce his wife at the slightest pretext. Here, he had only to see to it
that he provided her with the written document of divorce. However,
there is no statement, whatsoever, anywhere in the Bible which would
enable woman to free herself from the clutches of even the most
cruel husband (Deuteronomy 24:1-4).
The position of woman in Jewish society at the time of the
advent of Jesus was, indeed, a pathetic one. Women, children and
slaves were not permitted to recite Shema, the morning prayer. In
fact, there was even a Jewish ritual daily prayer that said ‘I praise
God in that He created me not as woman.’ Woman were not permitted
to study the Torah. The Jewish Rabbi, Eliyasar, who lived around 90
C.E. had even opined that it was better to throw women to flames
than to teach them the Torah.
It can be seen that Christ had sincerely striven to bring about a
change in this situation. He gave positions to women amongst his
disciples. Even though there are no women amongst the apostles, we
see that many women attended his sermons. Mary Magdalene,
Yohanna, Susanna ... so goes their list. He had preached the gospel to
all irrespective of the fact whether they were men or women (John
4:1-24). In a Jewish society where it was ordained that there was
nothing for the woman in matter of religion, these steps were all
revolutionary in themselves. Through these steps Christ sought to teach
that both woman as well as man were equal before God.
Even as the church went astray in matters of belief after Jesus,
so did lapses begin to occur in the matter of the position accorded to
woman. The Christians, too, began to follow the prevalent laws of the
Old Jewish Community on matter dealing with woman. With the
assumption of Church authority by Paul, things became even worse.
Furthermore, with the influx of people from among the Greeks into
Christianity, the Christian community now became saturated with the
decadent conceptions on woman prevalent both in the Jewish as well
as the Greek traditions. Sophocles, the Greek philosopher, had said
that “silence is the token of greatness as regards to woman” The
Greeks were never prepared to grant any right, whatsoever, to woman.
That woman was the very personification of the devil was the very
theme popular in those days. At home, woman was not even entitled
to a place at the dining table. She was to ever remain confined to the
living quarters that was specially laid out for her. She was exploited
wholesale in the name of religion. The Greeks too were used to the
habit of ‘donating’ women to the temples. Those who were so ‘donated’
would then be doomed to a life of prostitution and menial jobs that
were associated with the temples. There are records to show that,
like the Devadasis of India, there were around a thousand of such
‘maid-servants of the divine’ in the service of the temple of the god,
Aphrodite, in Corinth. It was natural, therefore, that the Christian church,
which adopted religious laws from the Greeks and the Jews, sought to
enact laws that would violate the sanctity of womanhood.
It is, however, in the epistles of Paul that we see the Christian
seeds of all anti-woman policies often attributed to the Christianity.
This animosity towards woman that pervades the epistles of Paul was
but a natural outcome of his having accepted Greek philosophy as the
very foundation for all his own ideas as well. It is the influence of the
Greek thought that ‘the woman is the very image of the Devil’ that is
evident in the writings of Paul which state to the effect that ‘it is good
for a man not to marry.’ (Corinthians 7:1). It is again the ideas of
Sophacles who said that ‘silence is the token of greatness as regards
the women.’ that is reflected in the words of Paul who said that ‘the
women must observe silence at the church.’ (I Corinthians 14:34-3)
Woman is, indeed, one who demands protection. She is, by her
very nature, so constituted. Womanhood reaches its greatest heights
with pregnancy and child-birth. It is through marriage that woman is
enabled to fulfill all her natural propensities. By teaching that ‘it is
good for a man not to marry’, Paul has propagated a notion that is
wholly antagonistic towards woman: “Are you married? Do not seek
a divorce. Are you unmarried? Do not look for a wife.” (I Corinthians
7:27)
“Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for
them to stay unmarried, as I am.” (I Corinthians 7:8)
“So then, he who marries the virgin does right, but he who does
not marry does even better.” (I Corinthians 7:38)
If all men in the world where to obey Paul and perform the
‘good’ act of not having anything to do with woman, the entire human
race would cease to exist within the span of a single century. It is for
this reason that this Christian notion is said to be antagonistic towards
humanity itself.
It was on the basis of these statements of Paul that Christian
ascetism developed. We are unable, however, to see in the sayings of
Christ anything that would discourage marriage. Nevertheless, we see
that within the span of a few centuries after Christ, ascetism came to
be greatly encouraged and to be accepted as the very foundation of all
Christian virtue during the unfolding of the history of Christianity. The
Devadasi system that prevailed amongst the Greeks, too, must have
had its influence upon the development of Christian ascetism. Ascetism
would have a greater adverse effect on woman than on man. For,
after all, it was through wedlock that womanhood found its highest
fulfillment and perfection.
It is the reflection of the influence of the doctrines of Paul that
were antagonistic towards woman which we witness in the activities
of the medieval church. Indeed, The foremost subject of heated
discussions of the church in those times was whether woman had a
soul or not. The cruelty that was perpetrated in the name of ascetism
went beyond all limits. All this madness was supposedly committed in
order that one may approach the divine through the infliction of torture
upon one’s own self.
It may have been in response to this attitude of the church against
woman as well as against the fulfillment of the sexual instincts that set
the stage for the moral laxity of the western world. As for the Qur'an,
it presents the sexual impulse as a sign of God in itself. Its fulfillment
is but the natural yearning of the human species. Indeed, the Prophet
(e) had taught that the fulfillment of the sexual urge, through the legal
provisions of the divine commandments, was, in itself, an act of
righteousness. As far as man was concerned, woman was then a
partner in this righteous act. But according to the Christian notion that
sexuality is in itself a sin, it is only natural that the woman is seen as
the sinner. The Qur'an, on the other hand, introduces woman as mate
and support.

27
In Islam / QURA'N AND RIGHT OF WOMEN
« on: January 26, 2013, 05:20:34 AM »
The Qur'an teaches that in the preservation of the solid edifice
of the family, both the man and the woman are to play their respective
roles. It is from this foundational basis that the Qur'anic laws
concerning their rights, responsibilities and duties emanate. The
Qur'anic vision with regard to man and woman may be summarised
as follows:
One : Both man and woman originated from the same soul.
They are like the two sides of a coin. Although both are independent,
it is their mutuality which gives each its fullness.
Two : Neither can a woman be like a man nor a man be like a
woman. Each has its very own different, yet, potentially mutual,
existence.
Three : Both man and woman have then rights. However those
rights are to be attained not through violence. It must be through mutual
cooperation.
Four : Both have their respective duties. It is only by virtue of
fulfilling these duties that both the individual and the society can survive.
Five : It is against the very law of nature for a man to undertake
the responsibilities of a woman and for a woman to try to fulfill those
of a man. Each has to perform its own duty.
Six : It should not be at the expense of the other’s rights that
each seeks to fulfill one’s obligations and enjoy one’s own rights.
The rights accorded to woman by the Qur'an may be summarized
as follows :
1. The right to live. The Arabs were a people who, on knowing
that one’s wife had delivered a female child, contemplated killing it
(Qur'an 16:59). The moral level of contemporary society, which, through
modern technological devices, identifies the sex of the embryo and on
learning that the child to be born is a female, one resorts to killing it in
its embryonic stage itself, is hardly above that of the Arabs of primitive
times. The Qur'an criticizes that narrow- mindedness which would
not permit the girl child to live. (Qur'an 16:59, 81:9). It declares that
like man, she, too, has the right to birth and to life.
2. The right to own property : The Qur'an has given the woman,
like the man, the right to earn wealth. The view of the Qur'an is that all
her earnings, whether it be through her personal efforts or by way of
inheritance, belongs to her and to her alone. None, not even the husband,
has the right to take anything, whatsoever, of her earnings without her
explicit permission. “And in no wise covet those things in which Allah
hath bestowed His gifts more freely on some of you than on others: to
men is allotted what they earn; But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah
hath full knowledge of all things.” (Qur'an 4:32)
3. The right to inheritance : It is the Qur'anic recommendation
that daughters, too, have a share in the wealth of their parents. In
reality, no other religious scripture has declared the right to inheritance
of the woman. Even in Europe, which boasts to be very civilized, the
right to inheritance for women was recognized and put into effect only
since the last couple of centuries. The Qur'an had, however, declared
and brought into effect the law fourteen centuries ago that women
had the right to inheritance. “From what is left by parents and those
nearest related there is a share for men and a share for women,
whether the property be small or large - a determinate share.” (Qur'an
4:7)
4. The right to choose a mate : Islam recommends that while
putting forth marriage proposals, the likes and dislikes of the woman
must be seriously considered. None, not even the father, has the right
to marry off his daughter to a person whom she dislikes. Prophet
Muhammad(e) had said, “The widow is not to be given in marriage
without her consent. The virgin is not to be given in marriage without
consulting her for her acceptance. Her silence constitutes her
acceptance’’ (Bukhari, Muslim)
5. The right to education and free thought: The Qur'an’s view is
that women have the right to education and free thought. This view is,
however, not restricted to mere advice. The Prophet had practically
demonstrated this. The great yearning for knowledge exhibited by the
woman who followed the Prophet is universally acknowledged. For it
can be seen from the history of the times that women used to always
approach the Prophet and his wives to acquire knowledge. Indeed it is
seen in the hadith reported by Imam Bukhari that the Prophet had set
aside one day for his discussions with them.
6. The right to criticize: Islam provides the woman with the
right to criticize and question. The incident wherein quoting from the
Qur'an a woman once criticizes the Caliph Umar when he prepared to
control the value of Mehr as men were finding it difficult to pay their
due to the constant increase in its value and wherein he corrected
himself saying: “Everybody - even an old woman - knows better than
Umar.’’ (Muslim), is quite well-known.
The first verses of Surah Mujadilah (Those who question) were
revealed in response to the questions put by a woman companion who
argued with the Prophet concerning the traditions of lihaar which
prevailed during the time of Jahiliyyah. This makes it quite clear that
even women were permitted to discuss matters freely with the Prophet
when it came to the issue of their rights. It is especially relevant that at
no point in these verses has the argument raised by the woman been
frowned upon.
7. The right to take part in social activities: Although it is only
natural that men take part in politics, Islam has granted the freedom to
participate in matters pertaining to the nation to the woman also. Islam,
however, does not compel women to take part directly in the campaigns
for freedom of belief. But Muslim women did take part in helping out
those who were fighting in the field of battle. History does give us
accounts of woman-companions of the Prophet who proceeded to the
battlefield accompanying the men, prepared food for them, distributed
water and nursed the wounded. There has been in Islamic history
even those precious few who, under dire circumstances, went with
the men to very thick of the action on the battle field. Indeed, it was
Ayesha, the Prophet’s wife, who led her side in the Battle of the Camel
which transpired as a result of the contention , and the opposition to it,
that Ali was not to be elected as Caliph until the assassins of Caliph
Usman were apprehended and punished.
8. The right to dower: It is the right of the woman being married
to recieve Mehr. The woman has the right to demand the Mehr of her
choice through her guardian. It is the duty of the man to give this
dower. The dower which is given to her is then considered as the
wealth of the woman. None can take from it except with her permission.
“And give the women (on marriage) their dower as an obligation; but
if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it
and enjoy it with right good cheer.” (H.Q. 4:4) - this is the
commandment of the Qur'an.
9. The right to divorce: The woman has the right to get a divorce
under circumstances wherein she becomes unable to live with her
husband. The divorce from the woman’s side is referred to by the two
terms Khul’a and Fasq. The first is the divorce wherein the dower is
also to be returned while the second is the one in which it is not
returned. In any event, Islam does not force the woman to live with
a husband whom she does not like. Under compelling circumstances,
she can recieve a divorce.

28
Who was Jesus Christ ?

The Jews claim that Christ was the offspring of an adulterous relationship.

The Christians believe that Jesus was one person in the God of the Trinity.

The sources of Islam makes it abundantly clear that Isa, the Messiah, was, in fact, a messenger who was sent to the Israelites.

Who did Christ himself claim to be ?

Has Christ ever claimed that he was one person amongst the triple God-head of the Trinity? Is there any evidence in the Bible to the effect that he did make such a claim? Let us examine the matter.

Father, Son and Holy sprit

The following verses from the Gospel according to Matthew have been produced as evidence in support of the Trinity: "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I will be with you always, to the very end of the age." (Matthew 28:19,20)

These verses are, however, not the proofs for Trinity. Indeed, these verses are better suited as criticism against the Trinity. The only thing that is evident from these verses is that there are three entities namely the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. However, it is not given to understand here that these three are one. If these three were indeed the three personages of the One God then it should have been made clear in the verses themselves or Christ should have declared it himself. Why did Christ, who taught concerning the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit, not say himself that these three were the personages of the One God? Is it that Christ had covered up the 'fact' that these three were one from the masses? No. That can never be. The Messiah, who had come as the very messenger of truth would never have covered up anything which he himself knew and which would have served as the means of salvation for his people. He, who had shown the truth and the way, had never abstained from conveying to the masses any belief that would have provided life eternal itself. Yet he had never given out - not even once - the slightest hint of the doctrine of Trinity. It is evident from this itself that the idea of the Trinity does not fall into that group of fundamental beliefs which would serve to provide for eternal life.

'I and the Father are One'

Some have asked the question as to whether Christ had not himself said that "I and the Father are one." (John 10:30) and whether this does not then imply that he and God were, indeed, two parts of the same and single entity. Let us examine this verse in all its completeness. "My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father's hand. I and the Father are one." (John 10:27-30)

There is not even a single indication anywhere in these verses which serve to convincingly present the claim that both Jesus and the Father belong to the triple parts of the same Divine essence. If that is so, then why has it been said here that "I and the Father are one" ?

Observe another of the statements from the Gospel of John: "... that all of them may be one, Father, just as You are in me and I am in You. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that You have sent me. I have given them the glory that You gave me, that they may be one as we are one: I in them and You in me. May they be brought to complete unity to let the world know that You sent me and: have loved them even as You have loved me." (John 17:21-23)

In these verses it has been said that not only is God one in Christ alone, but the followers too constitute this oneness with God. If it is claimed that Christ is one in a triple God-head based on the aforementioned statement, "I and the Father are one", it must then be conceded, again on the basis of the above mentioned statement, that the followers of Christ, too, will find an existence within the Divine essence. It is then not the oneness in essence which is mentioned in these verses, but the oneness in ideal and belief. Here, it is the Greek word hen which has been translated as 'one'. This word is never the oneness in essence; it is the oneness in the attitude of co-operation that is implied here.

The saying of Christ that "I and the Father are one" is merely similar in intent to the saying used in the Malayalam language to the effect that "We both are bound to each other (in purpose)." Both Christ and the Father, who are involved in conveying the Divine message are, indeed, one. The followers of Christ, who accept it and attain to life eternal are also members in that communion. It is the communion of the Father, the prophet and of the apostles.

'He who has seen me has seen the father'

Some have asked based on the saying of Jesus, "he who has seen me has seen whether he could not, indeed, be God. Can man ever see God? The fact is that this can never be. Both the Old and the New Testaments have thrown light on this reality. Look at what the book of Exodus quotes Jehovah as having told Moses: "But , he said, 'you cannot see My Face, for no-one may see Me and live.'" (Exodus 33:20) If Christ was, indeed, God, then it would not have been possible for the masses to have seen him. As for Christ, he had lived as one seen by the people and as one seeing them in turn.

What then is the implication of the statement that "he who has seen me has seen father"? Examine this statement in full. "Philip said, 'Lord show us the Father and that will be enough for us.'

Jesus answered: 'Don't you know me, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time? Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, 'Show us the Father'? " (John 14:8,9). Here Christ has made it clear that none can at any time ever see God and that it is through Jesus that one must come to know God Himself.

Look at what John himself has to say, "No-one has ever seen God, but God, through His only Son, who is at the Father's side, has made him known." (John 1:18). Look at this verse in particular. The phrase used has been that 'No one has ever seen God.' There is no two opinion concerning the fact that this was written after Christ. This has been stated by John who only knew that the people had seen Christ. This means that John had never believed that Jesus Christ was God. Indeed, in the usage of 'God' Christ was never included. Of that we may be certain. It is, therefore, clear that John was a person who knew nothing of the God of the Trinity.

Divine truth was made manifest through Jesus. For he is the messenger of God. Indeed it is simply because of that anyone who knew Jesus came to know of God as well. This means that the son has made him (God) manifest. (John 1:18). This is the essence of the saying of Christ that ' he who has seen me has seen the father. Even when Christ said that "the words that ye hear are not mine, but of the Father who hath sent me" (John 14:24), it was the same message that is being conveyed.

Son of God

Another of the claims has been that as Christ has declared himself to be the son of God and that as his followers never discouraged the practice of calling him as such, it must follow that he did, indeed, possess such divinity. Whenever the Bible does make use of the term 'Son of God' it is necessary, firstly, to examine the meaning that has been intended there. The only Biblical meaning that can be conferred upon the term 'Son of God' is a man, particularly appointed by God Himself. Paul had written that "As many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God." (Romans 8:14)

The term 'Son of God' has been, therefore, reserved only for the elect of God. This has been the usage both in the Old and the New Testaments. Christ himself has made this clear. "If he called them 'gods' to whom the word of God came - and the Scripture cannot be broken - what about the one whom the Father set apart as His very own and sent into the world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, 'I am God's Son'?" (John 10:35,36). This would then mean that even as the God of the Israelites had referred to those to whom the Book was revealed as being gods, so was Christ, the messenger, who was sent into the world for the purpose of the guidance called the 'Son of God'.

It can be seen that the term 'Son of God' has been employed as a way of addressing right from the Old Testament itself. In fact, Jacob, Solomon, Ephraim and David: all are the sons of God in the language of the Old Testament.

"Then say to Pharaoh, 'This is what the LORD says: Israel is my firstborn son, ..." (Exodus 4:22)

"I will be his father, and he shall be My son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men." (Samuel 7:14)

"They will come with weeping; they will pray as I bring them back. I will lead them beside streams of water on a level path where they will not stumble, because I am Israel's father, and Ephraim is my firstborn son." (Jeremiah 31:9)

"I will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me, 'You are My son; today I have become your Father.'" (Psalm 2:7)

If it is contended that Christ is one in the three personages of the Divine Trinity for the reason that he has been addressed as the son of God, then it must also be conceded that all the prophets in the Old Testament, who were referred to as the sons of God, must all be the personages of the Divine essence as well. But that is not all. The New Testament refers to all those who believe in Christ as the sons of God. Writes John, "Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God" (John 1:12). If Christ is, indeed, one person in the essence of the God of the Trinity because he is the Son of God, then it must follow that the apostles, too, who were conferred the right to be the sons of God, must find their membership in the same essence as well.

Matthew has made it clear as to who it is that are entitled to be known as the sons of God. "Blessed are the peace-makers, for they will be called sons of God." (Matthew 5:9). However, none among the peace-makers have raised the claim of being a part of the Divine Essence.

The Miraculous Birth

We have understood that Christ had never claimed to be God or that he was one personage in the God of the Trinity or even that he was the begotten son of God. It is also claimed that he was the son of God as he was born without a father. If that is so, then it must be Adam, who was born without a father and a mother, who is more entitled, than Jesus, to be the son of God! In fact, the Bible does introduce Adam as being the son of God (Luke 3:38). Is it possible to accept Adam as a personage in the essence of God on the premise that he has been recognized as the son of God?

The Bible introduces Melchizedec, the high priest, as one who has neither beginning nor end. Look at what Paul has to write about Melchizedec, the King of Salem, the high priest of God: "Without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life, like the Son of God he remains a priest forever." (Hebrews 7:3) If it is claimed that Christ was the son of God simply because he was born without a father, it must then be conceded that Melchizedec, who has neither father nor mother, no beginning or end, was even more deserving than Christ in being the son of God. At this rate the number of personages within the divine essence can only but increase. Indeed, the doctrine of Trinity will very well change into a multiplicity of the divine unity!

The Holy Prophet

Who was Christ? This question still remains to be answered. He had himself never claimed to be God or even to be the begotten son of God. Then what was it that he actually did claim?

Read through the statements concerning Christ which have come up in the New Testament. He has been referred to as the 'Son of God' in a very limited number of occasions within the Gospels. This epithette has been, however, used more frequently in the writings of Paul. The Gospels have, on the other hand, referred to Jesus as the 'Son of Man' 63 times.

Yes .... Christ was, indeed, the Son of Man. A man who was subject, like every one of us, to the feelings of hunger, thirst and other emotions. A man great in the sense that he had laboured to sacrifice all his desires for the sake of God's pleasure. A messenger who had striven to his utmost to lead the Children of Israel along that path of Truth and virtue. That which he uttered was but the revelation of God. He said, "He who does not love me will not obey my teaching. These words you hear are not my own; they belong to the Father who sent me." (John 14:24) He had performed many a miracle. These were, however, shown by God. Christ had made clear the fact that he could do nothing of himself except that which God had taught him." .... 'I tell you the truth, the Son can do nothing by himself; he can do only what he sees his Father doing, because whatever the Father does the Son also does." (John 5:19)

Christ was, indeed, a very human messenger. A messenger like Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Moses and Joseph. He was the guide of the Children of Israel. He was innocent of sin; a great individual who had persevered to guide society along the path of righteousness by his own example. He was not God; nor even the son of God. Nor yet one in the three personages of the Trinity. He was but a messenger; a very human messenger.

The Complete Man

Examine the New Testament. We see, therein, Christ, the man. If we study the accounts from his birth onwards. We cannot arrive at a picture that is different from that of a human being.

- Jesus is born as the descendent of Abraham and David (Luke 2:21).

- Jesus is circumcised (Luke 2:21).

- Jesus is breast-fed (Luke 11:27).

- Jesus travels on back of the ass (Matthew 21:5).

- Jesus takes food and drink (Matthew 11:19).

- A homeless Jesus (Matthew 8:20).

- Jesus uses clothing (John 19:23).

- Jesus has brothers and sisters (Matthew 13:35).

- The knowledge of Jesus increases with his age (Luke 21:40).

- Jesus, of his own self, can do nothing (John 5:30).

- Jesus is unaware of the time of fruition of the Fig tree (Mark 11:12).

- Jesus exercises obedience through his patience (Ebriar 5:8).

- Jesus experiences hunger (Mark 11:12).

- Jesus experiences thirst (John 19:28).

- Jesus sleeps (Matthew 8:24).

- Jesus is fatigued in a journey (John 4:6).

- Jesus sighs in anxiety (John 11:33).

- Jesus weeps (John 11:35).

- Jesus grieves (Matthew 26:37).

- Jesus exerts his strength (John 2:13).

- Jesus exhorts unto the taking up of the sword (Luke 22:36).

- Jesus fears the Jews (John 18:12,13).

- Jesus is betrayed (John 18:2).

- Jesus is captured (John 18:12,13)

- Jesus is humiliated (Matthew 26:67)

- Jesus is beaten (John 18:22)

- Jesus fears death (Mark 14:36).

- Jesus prays to God (Matthew 26:42).

- A messenger from heaven appears so that Jesus may be strengthened (Luke 22:43).

Let us now think. Is Jesus God or was he human?

Common sense answers that he is, indeed, human. A great messenger!

The Holy Quran had been right all along: "O people of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a messenger of Allah, and his Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not 'Three': desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One God: glory be to Him: (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs." (Quran 4:171)

The Gospel of God

Jesus Christ was the messenger of God who was appointed amongst the Israelites. He had himself said: "leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift." (Matthew 5:24). His mission was to bring back the Israelites, who had deviated from the Divine path, to the religion of truth.

The Gospel (Injeel) was the scripture that was revealed to Jesus. He had invited the Israelites towards the path of Truth by preaching the Gospel.

Jesus had taught : " 'The time has come,' he said, 'The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!'" (Mark 1:15). "Firstly, the good news must be preached to all people." (Mark 14:9)

Where is the Gospel, which God had revealed to Jesus Christ, to be found today? Will we ever get a complete picture of the Gospel which Jesus had preached if we are to search the whole of the Bible thoroughly? No. The New testament contain the gospels of Matthew, Mark and John. Where then is the 'Gospel of God' that was preached by Jesus to be found today?

The 'Gospel of God' preached by Jesus Christ is not extant today. Like all the previous divine scriptures which were revealed before it, it, too, has become long forgotten now.

There is but one single religious scripture that has maintained the original purity with which it was revealed. That is the Holy Quran. The Quran is, furthermore, the only book which, on its own, professes to be divine. The Quran is the book which has remained unconquered for fourteen centuries in the face of all the scientific and technological revolutions witnessed by the world.

The Quran was revealed to the world through Muhammad (e) who was prophesied by Jesus as the one who was to come as his successor (John 16:7-14).

Those who desire to obey Jesus and attain to life eternal must, necessarily, follow the Quran as well as the life of Muhammad (e) which was based on it. That is the path of eternal salvation.

29
Bible Prophecies / Uncompleted bible prophecy:
« on: January 23, 2013, 03:21:11 AM »
Uncompleted bible prophecy:


All prophets said the verses in the name of god. If it never happened or it Dishonest, you throw out the verses, god never said like that, that prophet was a liar. You never follow and fear him. (Deuteronomion 18:18)

1) Adam dead:
 â€œYou eat the fruits you will die that day” (Genesis 2:17)

Adam ate the fruits he never dies that day (Genesis 3:5 to 7, 22)

2) Fourth generations of Abraham are refugees. (Genesis 15:13 to 17)

Abraham>Issaquah> Yakobe> Levi> kahath> amram> mosses

But it happened 7th generation during the periods of mosses. We can’t found from the bible period of Issaquah, Yakobe, Levi, kahath and amram are refugees.

3) God says to yakube “I give this land for you and your successor” (Genesis 28:13)

We know from the bible it never happened yakube life.

4) God says to yakube “I bring back you from Egypt” (Genesis 46:4)

It never been happened his life. He lived and died at Egypt.


Yakube lived Egypt 147 years and he died there (Genesis 47:28, 29)

5) God says to mosses “I give you land for you and your successor” I send an angel and throw the ‘kananians’ and ‘yebusarians’ (Exodos 33:1, 2)
It never happened during the period of mosses ‘kananians’ and ‘yebusarians’ are never throw from Israel.

6) Who had written the verses?

God say to mosses “I am writing verses on the slab” (Exodos 34:1)
Mosses written verses on the slab (Exodos 34:27)

7) God says to Israel “I bless you, you give loan many people, but you never got loan from others, you ruled several people, anyone never ruled you” ( Deuteronomion 15:6)
 
It’s never happened we know that many countries ruled by Israel, they take loan from different countries.

8) That period Five city from Egypt spoken by canon language. (Yeshua 19:18)

 This prophecy happened?

We know that from the history people of Egypt never spoken the canon language.

9) God say to Sedikya (king of yehudha) your dead came pecfully, you never died by sword. (Yeramiave 34:4, 5)   

It’s happened? ‘You died peacefully’.
How can sedikya died?
King of Babylonia killed sedikya two sons in front of him, they killed people of yehudha, and they caught sediky make him blind, he died at jail. (Yeramiave 52:10, 11, kings 25:7)

10) Oh! Jerusalem, you wear the beautiful dress, only the people who fore skin sectioned and cleaned are enter into you”(yeshave 52:1) 

It never happened because many people enter Jerusalem without fore skin sectioned and cleaned, till it continue.

11) “...People never been lived Babylonia, anyone can’t enter to Babylonia, only wild animal live there in future” (Yeramiave50:40, 41, yeshave 13:19-22)

It never happened, many people lived there, till it continue
 
12) “God says “city of tire never been a livable place, no one live there (yesakail26:20, 21, 21:36)
It never happened, Jesus travel through Tire and he saw the people, he enters one of the homes (Mathew 15:21 mark 7:3, apostle21:3)

13) Return of the Jesus:
God says “some people present here they saw the return of Jesus and make the world divine” (Mathew16:28, mark14:62, Luke 9:27)

Why bible says’ someone present here, they saw the return of Jesus’?
It never happened during the periods of apostle. Jesus dead and 2000 years passed away. Jesus never returns.

14)”this generation never passed away without they saw ‘end of day’ ” (mark13:29, 30, Luke 21:32)

After Jesus many generations passed away, it never happened during the periods of apostle. Jesus dead and 2000 years passed away. It never been happened.

15)  Revival of Jesus:
Like yona three days and three nights Jesus being under the earth. (Mathew 12:39, 40)

We know from the verses after the Jesus dead, his body still there three day and night.
But from the bible we know that Jesus cruised Friday evening and his Revival Sunday yearly morning (Sunday yearly morning Mariyam never saw the Jesus body).
How many day and night?
Friday night, Saturday morning, satuday night =2 night and 1 day.

How can it happening 3 day and 3 nights?
 
16) Life after death:

“My twelve apostles ruled twelve tribes of Israel during their Reincarnation” (Mathew 19:28)
This verse indicate that Respectful of twelve apostles after their dead.
Twelve apostles from pathrose to yuda eskiriath (Mathew 10:1-5) 
What about yuda eskiriath?
He Betrayed Jesus.
Christian believes that he was a Curser.
How can he rule tribe of Israel during his Reincarnation?

All prophets said the verses in the name of god. If it never happened or it Dishonest, you throw out the verses, god never said like that, that prophet was a liar. You never follow him and fear him. (Deuteronomion 18:18)

From the 16 the prophecy, we know that someone include some verses after the prophet dead.

Oh! People of books why are you mixed truth and false in to the verses? Why are hide the truth? (Qur’an 3:71)

They written their hand and say to people ‘it is from the god’ for a small profit (Qur’an)

Are they never thinking about the Qur’an? If it is not from the god they can find many contradictions from it (Qur’an 4:82)

30
In actual fact the unrestricted freedom experienced by women
in the western world has only served to lead that society into a state of
chaos and disruption. Indeed, the scenes now being enacted there are
in protest against the anarchic situation created by Christian doctrine
itself. Even the most fanatical of Christian missionaries would hardly
endorse the statement that the freedom enjoyed by them owes itself
to Christian doctrine. Christian intellectuals are now engaged in thinking
out ways and means to extricate western civilization from the confines
of immorality. They have now recognized the fact that salvation through
the death on the cross can hardly be employed to practically cleanse
people of their sins. This would then mean that they themselves have
admitted that the freedom of western women cannot be the product
of Christian dogma. In truth, therefore, the people of the west began
to move away from established values in protest, and as a response, to
the world renunciation of Christian ascetism.
The Christian religion had but followed the Jewish principles.
No new belief, no ritual or code of morality can be seen to have been
taught by Christ. Christ had only claimed that he was a prophet sent
unto the lost sheep of the House of Israel (Mathew 15:25). He had
said that he was sent only to fulfill the code of the Old Testament
(Mathew 5:17). This meant that he was a prophet appointed to guide
the Israelites along the path of God. He had advised the people to
follow the laws revealed to Moses. Indeed, in the first centuries (after
the departure of Christ) the church had no rites or rituals, whatsoever,
which differed from those of the Jews in any manner; nor was there
any such law either.
It is the Jewish belief that the woman is the cause of sin entering
amongst mankind. The woman was, after all, the one who ate of the
forbidden fruit herself and then persuaded her mate to eat it too
(Genesis 3:12). She was the sinner who not only disobeyed God herself
but caused another to disobey as well. With the Christian adaptation
of this idea, she became, through her opening the door for sin, doomed
to carry the burden of guilt for having become the immediate cause of
the gruesome ordeal of the son of God which led to his death on the
cross.
The Hebrew term Baal means owner. The Old Testament of
the Bible refers to man as Baal. We see that according to the
commandments of the Old Testament, man is portrayed as one who
has total authority over woman. Indeed, the Bible has given man the
permission to even sell of his women - even if they were to be his own
daughters (Genesis 21:7). Among the Jews there was even the tradition
of selling off their own daughters at the slave market in order to repay
their debts (Nehemiah 5:5). Even in the matter of religious practice,
the Jews never granted women the freedom to act freely. The Book
of Numbers ruled that man had the authority to nullify the vows taken
up by his daughter or wife (30:12). That the wife was mentioned
together with slaves and domestic animals in the Ten Commandments
(Exodus 20:17, Deuteronomy 5:21) is an indication of the position of
woman amongst the Jews.
The Jews had looked upon the birth of a female child with
contempt. It was the law that if the mother gave birth to a female
child, she would be in a state of impurity for a period of time that
would be twice as long as the case if the child born was male (Leviticus
12:15). The ruling of the Old Testament was that woman had only
half the value of man (Leviticus 27:3-7).
Polygamy was universally practiced during the age of the Old
Testament. The Law commanded no restriction, whatsoever, in its
practice. Indeed, Solomon is said to have had seven hundred wives
and three hundred concubines! (I King 11:3). Moreover, according to
the Old Testament, only man had the right to divorce. A man could
divorce his wife at the slightest pretext. Here, he had only to see to it
that he provided her with the written document of divorce. However,
there is no statement, whatsoever, anywhere in the Bible which would
enable woman to free herself from the clutches of even the most
cruel husband (Deuteronomy 24:1-4).
The position of woman in Jewish society at the time of the
advent of Jesus was, indeed, a pathetic one. Women, children and
slaves were not permitted to recite Shema, the morning prayer. In
fact, there was even a Jewish ritual daily prayer that said ‘I praise
God in that He created me not as woman.’ Woman were not permitted
to study the Torah. The Jewish Rabbi, Eliyasar, who lived around 90
C.E. had even opined that it was better to throw women to flames
than to teach them the Torah.
It can be seen that Christ had sincerely striven to bring about a
change in this situation. He gave positions to women amongst his
disciples. Even though there are no women amongst the apostles, we
see that many women attended his sermons. Mary Magdalene,
Yohanna, Susanna ... so goes their list. He had preached the gospel to
all irrespective of the fact whether they were men or women (John
4:1-24). In a Jewish society where it was ordained that there was
nothing for the woman in matter of religion, these steps were all
revolutionary in themselves. Through these steps Christ sought to teach
that both woman as well as man were equal before God.
Even as the church went astray in matters of belief after Jesus,
so did lapses begin to occur in the matter of the position accorded to
woman. The Christians, too, began to follow the prevalent laws of the
Old Jewish Community on matter dealing with woman. With the
assumption of Church authority by Paul, things became even worse.
Furthermore, with the influx of people from among the Greeks into
Christianity, the Christian community now became saturated with the
decadent conceptions on woman prevalent both in the Jewish as well
as the Greek traditions. Sophocles, the Greek philosopher, had said
that “silence is the token of greatness as regards to woman” The
Greeks were never prepared to grant any right, whatsoever, to woman.
That woman was the very personification of the devil was the very
theme popular in those days. At home, woman was not even entitled
to a place at the dining table. She was to ever remain confined to the
living quarters that was specially laid out for her. She was exploited
wholesale in the name of religion. The Greeks too were used to the
habit of ‘donating’ women to the temples. Those who were so ‘donated’
would then be doomed to a life of prostitution and menial jobs that
were associated with the temples. There are records to show that,
like the Devadasis of India, there were around a thousand of such
‘maid-servants of the divine’ in the service of the temple of the god,
Aphrodite, in Corinth. It was natural, therefore, that the Christian church,
which adopted religious laws from the Greeks and the Jews, sought to
enact laws that would violate the sanctity of womanhood.
It is, however, in the epistles of Paul that we see the Christian
seeds of all anti-woman policies often attributed to the Christianity.
This animosity towards woman that pervades the epistles of Paul was
but a natural outcome of his having accepted Greek philosophy as the
very foundation for all his own ideas as well. It is the influence of the
Greek thought that ‘the woman is the very image of the Devil’ that is
evident in the writings of Paul which state to the effect that ‘it is good
for a man not to marry.’ (Corinthians 7:1). It is again the ideas of
Sophacles who said that ‘silence is the token of greatness as regards
the women.’ that is reflected in the words of Paul who said that ‘the
women must observe silence at the church.’ (I Corinthians 14:34-3)
Woman is, indeed, one who demands protection. She is, by her
very nature, so constituted. Womanhood reaches its greatest heights
with pregnancy and child-birth. It is through marriage that woman is
enabled to fulfill all her natural propensities. By teaching that ‘it is
good for a man not to marry’, Paul has propagated a notion that is
wholly antagonistic towards woman: “Are you married? Do not seek
a divorce. Are you unmarried? Do not look for a wife.” (I Corinthians
7:27)
“Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for
them to stay unmarried, as I am.” (I Corinthians 7:8)
“So then, he who marries the virgin does right, but he who does
not marry does even better.” (I Corinthians 7:38)
If all men in the world where to obey Paul and perform the
‘good’ act of not having anything to do with woman, the entire human
race would cease to exist within the span of a single century. It is for
this reason that this Christian notion is said to be antagonistic towards
humanity itself.
It was on the basis of these statements of Paul that Christian
ascetism developed. We are unable, however, to see in the sayings of
Christ anything that would discourage marriage. Nevertheless, we see
that within the span of a few centuries after Christ, ascetism came to
be greatly encouraged and to be accepted as the very foundation of all
Christian virtue during the unfolding of the history of Christianity. The
Devadasi system that prevailed amongst the Greeks, too, must have
had its influence upon the development of Christian ascetism. Ascetism
would have a greater adverse effect on woman than on man. For,
after all, it was through wedlock that womanhood found its highest
fulfillment and perfection.
It is the reflection of the influence of the doctrines of Paul that
were antagonistic towards woman which we witness in the activities
of the medieval church. Indeed, The foremost subject of heated
discussions of the church in those times was whether woman had a
soul or not. The cruelty that was perpetrated in the name of ascetism
went beyond all limits. All this madness was supposedly committed in
order that one may approach the divine through the infliction of torture
upon one’s own self.
It may have been in response to this attitude of the church against
woman as well as against the fulfillment of the sexual instincts that set
the stage for the moral laxity of the western world. As for the Qur'an,
it presents the sexual impulse as a sign of God in itself. Its fulfillment
is but the natural yearning of the human species. Indeed, the Prophet
(e) had taught that the fulfillment of the sexual urge, through the legal
provisions of the divine commandments, was, in itself, an act of
righteousness. As far as man was concerned, woman was then a
partner in this righteous act. But according to the Christian notion that
sexuality is in itself a sin, it is only natural that the woman is seen as
the sinner. The Qur'an, on the other hand, introduces woman as mate
and support.

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