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Simple Sound Verbs: Three Possible Shapes


Qualities of Allah:
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

I have not been here for half a year but now we will continue from where we left off.

So last topic, we conjugated كَتَبَ, a simple sound verb. This topic, I will show the three different shapes simple sound verbs can have. The different shapes depend on the vowel of the second root letter of the verb, which can either be fatha, dhamma, or kasra. Usually, Arabs use the verb فَعَلَ (to do) as the dummy verb, so we will use this verb.

The three different shapes are: فَعَلَ (ex. كَتَبَ), فَعِلَ (ex. لَعِبَ), and فَعُلَ (ex. قَرُبَ).

Now, when verbs in the form of فَعَلَ (fatha on second root letter) are conjugated into the present tense, the second root letter can have any of the three vowels on it depending on which verb it is. For example, كَتَبَ (he wrote) is conjugated into يَكْتُبُ (he writes) with a dhamma on the second root letter, thus following the pattern يَفْعُلُ. Now the verb جَلَسَ (he sat) is conjugated into يَجْلِسُ (he sits) with a kasra on the second root letter, following the pattern يَفْعِلُ. Finally, the verb فَعَلَ (he did) itself is conjugated into يَفْعَلُ (he does) with a fatha on the second root letter, following the form يَفْعَلُ (obviously).

As you can see, verbs of the form فَعَلَ can be conjugated into three different shapes in the present tense. There is no method (that I know of) of knowing which verbs get conjugated into which form in the present tense. The shape each verb becomes in the present tense form has to be memorized by heart manually.

Now moving on to verbs in the shape of فَعِلَ. When verbs of these shapes are conjugated into the present tense, they either take the pattern of يَفْعَلُ or يَفْعِلُ. For example, the verb لَعِبَ (he played) becomes يَلْعَبُ (he plays) with a fatha on the second root letter, following the model يَفْعَلُ, while the verb حَسِبَ (he thought) becomes يَحْسِبُ (he thinks) with a kasra on the second root letter, following the model يَفْعِلُ. (*NOTE: حَسِبَ is one of those verbs that can either be conjugated into يَحْسِبُ or يَحْسَبُ, so it follows both possible patterns it can take in the present tense form.)

Now for verbs with this shape (فَعِلَ), you also have to memorize by heart which form it will take in the present tense. However, for this one there are only two forms it can take, in contrast to the three forms of فَعَلَ shaped verbs. So this should be easier to memorize by heart than the last one.

Finally, the last shape a verb can have in the past tense, فَعُلَ. This one does not require any memorizing manually. You just need to know that verbs of these shape will be in the form of يَفْعُلُ in the present tense with a dhamma on the second root letter. The second root letter is dhamma in the past tense as well as present tense. For example, the verb قَرُبَ (he was near) is conjugated into يَقْرُبُ (he is near).

So this one is easy.

Last thing I want to mention before I am done with this topic, simple sound verbs aren't the only verbs with different possible shapes. Other verbs also have different possible shapes.

السلام عليكم


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