Author Topic: Verb Conjugation Part II: Doubled Root Verbs  (Read 914 times)

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Verb Conjugation Part II: Doubled Root Verbs
« on: January 03, 2022, 07:09:41 PM »
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

 

We have covered conjugation of simple sound verbs and the three possible shapes they can have in the past tense. We will now move on to conjugating doubled root verbs, the second type of sound verb.

So doubled root verbs are verbs where the third radical and second radical are the same. As a result of this, the two radicals combine into one with a tashdeed. The verb شَكَّ (to doubt, lit:he doubted) is a good example. This verb was originally شَكَكَ but since the last two radicals (root letters) are the same they have combined into شَكَّ.

Let's conjugate شَكَّ in the past tense. The verb شَكَّ (and all doubled root verbs in general) opens up into three radicals in the third person plural feminine and the entirety of the second and first person conjugations in the past tense. You will understand what this means when I start conjugating. Let's start:

(Masculine will be in blue and feminine will be in pink. Unisex will be green.)

Third Person Singular

He doubted: شَكَّ
She doubted: شَكَّتْ

Third Person Dual

They doubted: شَكَّا
They doubted: شَكَّتَا

Third Person Plural

They doubted: شَكُّوا
They doubted: شَكَكْنَ

Second Person Singular

You doubted: شَكَكْتَ
You doubted: شَكَكْتِ

Second Person Dual

You doubted: شَكَكْتُمَا

Second Person Plural

You doubted: شَكَكْتُمْ
You doubted: شَكَكْتُنَّ

First Person Singular

I doubted: شَكَكْتُ

First Person Plural

We doubted: شَكَكْنَا











As you can see, the verb is left double rooted in all the cases except for the third-person plural feminine and the entirety of the second and first persons, where it opens up. For example, "I doubted" is شَكَكْتُ while "he doubted" is شَكَّ. In شَكَكْتُ, the kaaf opens up to two kaafs. This will happen for all doubled root verbs.

Now moving on to present tense. In the present tense the verb (and all doubled root verbs) will be opened up in only the second person and third person feminine plural.

(Masculine will be in blue and feminine will be in pink. Unisex will be green.)

Third Person Singular

He doubts: يَشُكُّ
She doubts: تَشُكُّ

Third Person Dual

They doubt: يَشُكَّانِ
They doubt: تَشُكَّانِ

Third Person Plural

They doubt: يَشُكُّوْنَ
They doubt: يَشْكُكْنَ

Second Person Singular

You doubt: تَشُكُّ
You doubt: تَشُكِّيْنَ

Second Person Dual

You doubt: تَشُكَّانِ

Second Person Plural

You doubt: تَشُكُّوْنَ
You doubt: تَشْكُكْنَ

First Person Singular

I doubt: اَشُكُّ

First Person Plural

We doubt: نَشُكُّ












As you can see, the third and second person feminine plurals opened up in conjugation to two kaafs. Whenever the conjugation opens up in the present tense, the vowel (hark) on the first radical is moved to the second radical. For example "he doubts" is يَشُكُّ and "they (f. plural) doubt" is يَشْكُكْنَ. The dhamma of the first radical ش in the former conjugation, is moved to the ك in the latter conjugation. This rule applies to every doubled root letter verb. Another example is the verb يَمَسُّ (he touches), it turns into يَمْسَسْنَ (they f. plural touch). The fatha of the first radical م of the former conjugation was moved to the second radical س in the latter conjugation.

We will not do future tense since its conjugations are obvious. All you have to do is precede the present tense verb with سَ or سَوْفَ.

One last thing to mention about doubled root verbs is that it can have two possible shapes when opened up in the past tense. It can either have a fatha on its second radical or a kasra. An example of an opened doubled root verb with a kasra on its second radical is وَدِدْتُ (I loved). As for the example of an opened doubled root verb with a fatha on the second radical you already know it as we dedicated this whole topic to conjugate it, شَكَكْتُ (I doubted). As for what vowel the second radical will have in the present tense when it opens up, it can be either of the three vowels but dhamma is the most common. For example it could either be يَشْكُكْنَ (they f. plural doubt), يَمْسَسْنَ (they f. plural touch), or يَحْبِبْنَ (they f. plural love). This would make the vowel go back to the first letter if it was masculine singular and make يَشُكُّ (he doubts), يَمَسُّ (he touches), and يَحِبُّ (he loves).

I am now done with this lesson.

السلام عليكم

 

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