Parallel Passages in the Bible - part 2.


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Parallel Passages in the Bible


Part Two


Written by Abdullah Smith



The epistle of 2Peter is considered the most spurious document in the New Testament, written over two hundred years after the departure of Jesus. Evidence for this claim is the result of investigation into the Church Fathers; scholars have told us the very first reference to 2Peter was made by Origen (died 254 CE), the student of Clement who had possessed his own books.


The canonical books are considered “inspired scripture”, and the rejected books are called “apocrypha”, meaning “hidden from the people” for their doubtful and spurious origin. Yet the epistle of 2Peter, which should be classified as apocrypha, must be rejected because it carries no signature of authenticity. It claims to be written by Peter, yet Peter was martyred in the year 64 CE under Nero, decades before the epistle was written. There are complicated matters to discuss which further refutes the authenticity of 2Peter claimed by Evangelical Christians.


The Church bishop Serapion (190-211 CE) acknowledged the forgery of 2Peter:


For we, brethren, receive both Peter and the rest of the apostles as Christ Himself. But those writings which are falsely inscribed with their name, we as experienced persons reject, knowing that no such writings have been handed down to us. (



"Orthodox theologians were tempted, by the assurance of impunity, to compose fictions, which must be stigmatized with the epithets of fraud and forgery. They ascribed their own polemical works to the most venerable names of Christian antiquity." (Edward Gibbon, History of Christianity, p. 598)



We have provided books accepted by the Church Fathers, you will notice that 2Peter is clearly missing from these canons:




Iranaeus of Lyons (died. 200 CE)



Mentions every book except: Philemon, Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, Jude and 3 John.


Clement of Alexandria (died 211 CE)




Mentions every book except: Philemon, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John.



The Muratorian Canon




Mentions every book except: Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, 3 John



Justin Martyr (died 150 CE)



He never mentions the NT books! He (allegedly) quotes the four Gospels in his “Memoirs of the Apostles”, nothing else.



Origen of Alexandria (254 CE)




He doubts James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John


Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340 CE)



He doubts James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude




Recommended website:



The Epistle of Jude


Now we come to the epistle of Jude, this dubious and highly doubtful book must also be classified as ‘apocrypha’ because it contains no signature of authenticity. The epistle of Jude rightfully belongs under the same category as 2 Peter.


In fact, the first ‘bishop’ to mention Jude was Clement of Alexandria! And this reference shows the lack of authenticity. Jude identifies himself as the brother of James, (1:1) He was martyred decades before the epistle bearing his name was written.


The facts are simple.


  1. Ignatius of Antioch (died. 110 CE) fails to mention Jude, and never quotes from it. He wrote seven letters to various churches in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), but he fails to mention Jude.


  1. Polycarp of Smyrna (died 159 CE) fails to mention Jude. He wrote an epistle to the Philippians, but he does not mention Jude!


  1. Marcion of Sinope (died 140 CE), the Gnostic leader who founded the sect of Marcionites, rejected the Old Testament and the Hebrew gospels. He never refers to Jude.


  1. Valentinus, the 2nd century Gnostic leader, and Justin Martyr the first “Christian apologist” fail to mention Jude.



The Plagiarism


There are parallels between 2 Peter and Jude; these parallels undoubtedly prove that plagiarism was occurring between the two writers. It seems the writer of 2 Peter was borrowing from Jude, or the opposite could be true, the writer of Jude was plagiarizing from 2 Peter. It doesn’t make sense to plagiarize if you’re an eye-witness, but apparently the author of 2 Peter plagiarized from Jude, therefore indicating he was not an eye-witness, they were all dead by the time both epistles were subsequently written down, or fabricated.




Though you already know all this, I want to remind you that the Lord delivered his people out of Egypt, but later destroyed those who did not believe

(Jude 1:5)




So I will always remind you of these things, even though you know them and are firmly established in the truth you now have.

(2 Peter 1:12)



In the very same way, these dreamers pollute their own bodies, reject authority and slander celestial beings.

(Jude 1:8)




Bold and arrogant, these men are not afraid to slander celestial beings;

(2 Peter 2:10)



And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home—these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day (Jude 1: 6)



For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but sent them to hell, putting them into gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment; (2 Peter 2:4)



In a similar way, Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding towns gave themselves up to sexual immorality and perversion. They serve as an example of those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire. (Jude 1:7)




if he condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah by burning them to ashes, and made them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly; (2 Peter 2:6)



These men are blemishes at your love feasts, eating with you without the slightest qualm—shepherds who feed only themselves. They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind; autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted—twice dead. They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever.


These men are grumblers and faultfinders; they follow their own evil desires; they boast about themselves and flatter others for their own advantage. (Jude 1:12-14,16)




These men are springs without water and mists driven by a storm. Blackest darkness is reserved for them.


For they mouth empty, boastful words and, by appealing to the lustful desires of sinful human nature, they entice people who are just escaping from those who live in error. (2 Peter 17-18)



Woe to them! They have taken the way of Cain; they have rushed for profit into Balaam's error; (Jude 1:11)




They have left the straight way and wandered off to follow the way of Balaam son of Beor (2 Peter 2:15)



But, dear friends, remember what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold. They said to you, "In the last times there will be scoffers who will follow their own ungodly desires." These are the men who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts and do not have the Spirit. (Jude 1:17-19)




First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires. (2 Peter 2:3)



But you, dear friends, build yourselves up in your most holy faith and pray in the Holy Spirit. Keep yourselves in God's love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life. (Jude 1:20-21)




Therefore, dear friends, since you already know this, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of lawless men and fall from your secure position. But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen. (2 Peter 3:17-18)



These men are blemishes at your love feasts, eating with you without the slightest qualm—shepherds who feed only themselves. They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind; autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted—twice dead. They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever. (Jude 1:12)




But there were also false prophets among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you. They will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord who bought them—bringing swift destruction on themselves. Many will follow their shameful ways and will bring the way of truth into disrepute. In their greed these teachers will exploit you with stories they have made up. Their condemnation has long been hanging over them, and their destruction has not been sleeping. (2 Peter 2:1-3)





The reason for the composition of Jude and 2 Peter was to mock the Gnostics and instigate hatred by provoking the Literalist Christians to denounce their faith. This is the reason for why Jude and 2 Peter were composed, to undermine the Gnostic movement:


The author of the New Testament Letter of Jude, a short and rather paranoid polemic written for no other reason than to attack Gnostics(Timothy Freke, The Jesus Mysteries, p. 216)



Please read Part One:






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Articles by Abdullah Smith.

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