Rebuttal to Sam Shamoun on Stone Kissing and idolatry.


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Rebuttal to Sam Shamoun

Stone Kissing and idolatry

Abdullah Smith



The article can be accessed here (


The Quran condemns taking stones as objects of worship and veneration:

ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. S. 5:90 Y. Ali

The Quran also records the supposed encounter of Abraham with his people over the issue of idolatry:

And certainly We gave to Ibrahim his rectitude before, and We knew him fully well. When he said to his father and his people: What are these images to whose worship you cleave? They said: We found our fathers worshiping them. He said: Certainly you have been, (both) you and your fathers, in manifest error. They said: Have you brought to us the truth, or are you one of the triflers? He said: Nay! your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who brought them into existence, and I am of those who bear witness to this: And, by Allah! I will certainly do something against your idols after you go away, turning back. So he broke them into pieces, except the chief of them, that haply they may return to it. They said: Who has done this to our gods? Most surely he is one of the unjust. They said: We heard a youth called Ibrahim speak of them. Said they: Then bring him before the eyes of the people, perhaps they may bear witness. They said: Have you done this to our gods, O Ibrahim? He said: Surely (some doer) has done it; the chief of them is this, therefore ask them, if they can speak. Then they turned to themselves and said: Surely you yourselves are the unjust; Then they were made to hang down their heads: Certainly you know that they do not speak. He said: What! do you then serve besides Allah what brings you not any benefit at all, nor does it harm you? Fie on you and on what you serve besides Allah; what! do you not then understand? They said: Burn him and help your gods, if you are going to do (anything). S. 21:51-66 Shakir

Note this specific verse once again:

He said, "Do you then worship beside GOD what possesses no power to benefit you or harm you?" S. 21:66 Khalifa

According to the hadiths, Muhammad refused to enter the Kabah because of all of its idols:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

When Allah’s Apostle came to Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba with idols in it. He ordered (idols to be taken out). So they were taken out. The people took out the pictures of Abraham and Ishmael holding Azlams in their hands. Allah's Apostle said, "May Allah curse these people. By Allah, both Abraham and Ishmael never did the game of chance with Azlams." Then he entered the Ka'ba and said Takbir at its corners but did not offer the prayer in it. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 671)

Yet Muhammad didn’t apply the Quran’s injunctions consistently since he was seen kissing the black stone of the Kabah:

Narrated Salim that his father said:
I saw Allah’s Apostle arriving at Mecca; he kissed the Black Stone Corner first while doing Tawaf and did ramal in the first three rounds of the seven rounds (of Tawaf). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 673)

Narrated Az-Zubair bin ‘Arabi:
A man asked Ibn 'Umar about the touching of the Black Stone. Ibn ‘Umar said, "I saw Allah’s Apostle touching and kissing it." The questioner said, "But if there were a throng (much rush) round the Ka'ba and the people overpowered me, (what would I do?)" He replied angrily, "Stay in Yemen (as that man was from Yemen). I saw Allah's Apostle touching and kissing it." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 680)




There is no idolatry here, the Prophet did not worship the black stone, and if this were true, why did Muhammad record those verses against idolatry if he were the Quran’s author? The Prophet rejected idolatry his entire life, he was never seen bowing to the false gods, and he adhered to the religion of Abraham known as Hanafi.


The Quran rejects idolatry 1, Muhammad rejected idolatry 2, and his wife rejected idolatry and testified to his prophethood 3  

The edicts contained in the Quran as amplified and exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) are meant to guide humans to develop themselves to be as perfect as possible with maximum Godly qualities so that a society is established which at the very least a) Comprises of people who fully utilize the faculties of learning and reasoning by acquiring knowledge for the purpose of making the world to be a better place to live in and not for its destruction. b) Is peaceful, just and ensures equal justice for all. c) Cares for the needy and oppressed. d) Preserves and protects mutual rights and obligations. e) Ensures that there is no exploitation. f) Ensures equality of opportunity for all. g) Ensures that the resources of the universe are employed to the best advantage and well being of the society equitably and without harming or damaging the resources but in fact maintaining a perfect balance.  (1)

The teaching of Prophet Muhammad is based on the Quran alone; the edicts were exemplified as guidance for mankind:


His is the only example where all the excellences have been blended into one personality. He is a philosopher and a seer and also a living embodiment of his own teachings. He is a great statesman as well as a military genius. He is a legislator and also a teacher of morals. He is a spiritual luminary as well as a religious guide. His vision penetrates every aspect of life and there is nothing which he touches and does not adorn. His orders and commandments cover a vast field from the regulation of international relations down to the habits of everyday life like eating, drinking, and cleanliness of the body. On the foundations of his theories he established a civilisation and a culture and produced such a fine equilibrium in the conflicting aspects of life that there is to be found not even the slightest trace of any flaw, deficiency, or incompleteness. Can anyone out any other example of such a perfect and all-round personality? (Abul Ala Mawdudi, Towards Understanding Islam, p. )


The Prophet rejected the worship of idols before the Quran was revealed.

The entire nation calls him "Al-Ameen"(the Truthful and the Trustworthy). Even his enemies deposit their costly belongings with him for safe custody and he scrupulously fulfils their trust. He is the very embodiment of midst of a society which is immodest to the core. Born and bred among a people who regard drunkenness and gambling as virtues, he never touches alcohol and never indulges in gambling. His people are uncouth, uncultured and unclean, but he personifies in himself the highest culture and the most refined aesthetic outlook. Surrounded on all sides by heartless people, he himself has a heart overflowing with the milk of human kindness. He helps the orphans and widows. He is hospitable to travellers. He harms no one; rather, he goes all out to suffer hardships for others’ sake. Living among those for whom war is bread and butter, he is such a lover of peace that his heart melts for them when they take up arms and cut each other’s throats. He keeps aloof form the feuds of his tribe, and is foremost in bringing about reconciliation. Bred up in an idolatrous race, he is so clear-minded and possesses such a pure soul that he regards nothing in the heavens and the earth worth worshipping except the One True God. He does not bow before any created thing and does not partake of the offerings made to idols.

Instinctively he hates all kinds of worship of all creatures and beings besides God. In brief, the towering and radiant personality of this man in the midst of such a benighted and dark environment, may be likened to a beacon-light illumining a pitch-dark night or to a diamond shining in a heap of dead stones. (ibid, p. )

As mentioned earlier, the Prophet adhered to the religion of Abraham, and his wife Khadijah followed the same religion, they never worshipped any false gods during the Jahiliya period.


The Holy Prophet (May peace of God be upon him) was a born thinker. He was always found in serious meditation, as if deliberating upon the knotty problems of the World here and in the World hereafter. The religion of the Prophet Ibrahim (May peace of God be upon him) was prevailing then, but it was twisted and changed, altogether, so as to suit the whimsicality of the followers. The newly wedded wife Hazrat Khadijah (May peace of God be upon her) was also not an idol worshipper. She was among the Hunafa – the followers of the Prophet Ibrahim (May peace of God be upon him). Therefore, the union of the two was that of the monotheists. (Mohammad Anisur Rahman, The Historical Role of The Woman, 1985, p. 32)


It is clearly established from various sources that in Arabia, particularly in Mecca and Medina there were many who had revolted against idol-worship and were thirsting for the faith of Abraham. This was because the time for the appearance of the renovator of Abraham’s faith had come near. The existence of these seekers after Truth in Arabia leads the European writers to hold that pure monotheism had been fairly popular amongst the Arabs even before the propagation of Islam. (Shibli N’umani, A Biography of the Prophet, 1995, p. 113)


The Prophet kissed the Black stone to show respect, not worship, and the black stone was never defied even to this day, the Prophet kissed the stone because it’s an object from Heaven, and it was given to Abraham by God Himself.


Shabir Ally provides the answer to this common question.


Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") say they do not worship idols. When they go to Mecca, why do they kiss a black stone? Isn't that like worshipping an idol?

Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") do not worship the black stone. They regard the stone as a created thing. The most fundamental principle of Islam is that nothing or no one is to be worshipped except Allah, the one true God.

Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") who can afford the journey are required once in their lifetime to visit the House of Worship in Makkah. This was the first house built for the worship of the one true God. It was constructed by Abraham and his son Ishmael, peace be upon them. The black stone was brought to them from heaven by the angel Gabriel to function as a corner stone. It was thus affixed in one corner.

Because Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") kiss that stone, some observers hastily conclude that Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") worship it. A kiss, however, is not an act of worship unless it is accompanied by an intention to worship. If you kiss your child, for instance, that does not mean you worship your child.

Some may find it strange that Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") should treat a stone with respect. But this is not just any old stone. It is an item out of paradise.

The act of fixing a stone to mark a place of worship is as old as history. In the Bible we are told that Jacob, on whom be peace, had fixed a stone at a place where he saw a vision. He poured oil on it and called it Bethel meaning 'House of GOD' (see Genesis 28:18). He did this again upon God's instruction (see Genesis 35:1, 14, 15). No one should understand from this that God instructed Jacob to worship the stone. (Shabir Ally, Common Questions People Ask About Islam, p. 46)

The Black stone is not worshipped by the pilgrims:


Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") go to Makkah to glorify God, not to kiss a stone or worship a man or a semi-divinity. Kissing or touching the Black Stone at the Ka`bah is an optional action, not obligatory or prescribed. Those who kiss the Black Stone or touch it do not do it because they have faith in the Stone or attribute any superstitious qualities to it. Their faith is in God only. They kiss, touch or point at the Stone only as a token of respect or a symbol of love for Prophet Muhammad, who laid the Stone at the foundation of the Ka`bah when it was reconstructed. (1)


Shamoun is ignorant of the following verse:


Such (is the Pilgrimage): whoever honours the sacred rites of Allah, for him it is good in the Sight of his Lord. Lawful to you (for food in Pilgrimage) are cattle, except those mentioned to you (as exception): but shun the abomination of idols, and shun the word that is false,- (Al-Quran 22:20)


"Verily, you unbelievers and the false gods that you worship besides Allah are but fuel for Hell! To it will you surely come!" (Al-Quran 21:98)


"For ye do worship idols besides Allah, and ye invent falsehood. The things that ye worship besides Allah have no power to give you sustenance: then seek ye sustenance from Allah, serve Him, and be grateful to Him: to Him will be your return. (Al-Quran 29:17)


And rehearse to them (something of) Abraham's story. Behold, he said to his father and his people: "What worship ye?" They said: "We worship idols, and we remain constantly in attendance on them." He said: "Do they listen to you when ye call (on them), or do you good or harm?" Or do you good or harm They said: "Nay, but we found our fathers doing thus (what we do)." He said: "Do ye then see whom ye have been worshipping,- "Ye and your fathers before you?- "For they are enemies to me; not so the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds; "Who created me, and it is He Who guides me; "Who gives me food and drink, "And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me; "Who will cause me to die, and then to life (again); "And who, I hope, will forgive me my faults on the day of Judgment. "O my Lord! bestow wisdom on me, and join me with the righteous; (Al-Quran 26:69-80)


This should answer those claims because even a false prophet would never worship anything except God!


Logically, if the Prophet Muhammad was an idolater, it doesn’t make sense that he would write so bluntly against idol worship. The Quran was revealed to him, and he was commanded to say: “you unbelievers and the false gods that you worship besides Allah are but fuel for Hell!” (21:98)




This sheer act of idolatry troubled some of his own companions such as Umar bin al-Khattab:

Narrated ‘Abis bin Rabia:
‘Umar came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said, "No doubt, I know that you are a stone AND CAN NEITHER BENEFIT ANYONE NOR HARM ANYONE. Had I not seen Allah’s Apostle kissing you I would not have kissed you." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 667)

Narrated Zaid bin Aslam from his father who said:
"Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed the Corner (Black Stone) saying, ‘By Allah! I know that you are a stone AND CAN NEITHER BENEFIT NOR HARM. Had I not seen the Prophet touching (and kissing) you, I would never have touched (and kissed) you.’ Then he kissed it and said, ‘There is no reason for us to do Ramal (in Tawaf) except that we wanted to show off before the pagans, and now Allah has destroyed them.’ ‘Umar added, ‘(Nevertheless), the Prophet did that and we do not want to leave it (i.e. Ramal).’" (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 675)

Narrated Zaid bin Aslam that his father said:
"I saw ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab kissing the Black Stone and he then said, (to it) ‘Had I not seen Allah’s Apostle kissing you, (stone) I WOULD NOT HAVE KISSED YOU.’" (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 679)

How amusing that Umar basically echoes the words of Sura 21:66! Hence, not only was Muhammad acting inconsistently but he also committed idolatry!




Umar did not kiss the stone as reverence for its lifeless substance; he kissed the stone because it’s an object out of Paradise, whether he quoted 21:66 knowingly or not, Umar’s intention was purely spiritual, not physical or materialistic.


There is nothing physical about kissing a stone, it’s a spiritual act.


For example:


Then Solomon said, "The LORD has said that he would dwell in a dark cloud; I have indeed built a magnificent temple for you, a place for you to dwell forever." (1 Kings 8:13-14)


Yet we know this verse is spiritual, God does not dwell in houses dedicated to Him:


God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; (Acts 17:24)


"But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built! (1 Kings 8:27)


The Kaaba was built to establish the worship of One God, the Temple was built for the same reason, but God is above the Heavens. 


Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o'er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds! (Al-Quran 7:54)


Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. (Al-Quran 13:2)



Jesus used figurative language:


He answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel." (Matthew 15:24)


All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate the people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. He will put the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. (Matthew 25:32-33)


"First let the children eat all they want," he told her, "for it is not right to take the children's bread and toss it to their dogs." (Mark 7:27)


Jesus refers to Israel as “sheep” (15:24) and refers to the Gentiles as “goats” (25:32-33), then he says Israelites are “children” (7:27) and the Gentiles are “dogs”, these titles are figurative expressions. He further says:


"Though I have been speaking figuratively, a time is coming when I will no longer use this kind of language but will tell you plainly about my Father. (John 16:25)


The Old Testament uses similar expressions:


I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are children of the most High. (Psalms 82:6)


And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. (Exodus 7:1)


In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them. (2 Corinthians 4:4)


Amazingly, the argument Shamoun brings against the Holy Prophet can be applied to his own book. The Bible says Jacob fixed a stone as a pillar:

Early the next morning Jacob took the stone he had placed under his head and set it up as a pillar and poured oil on top of it. He called that place Bethel, [a] though the city used to be called Luz. (Genesis 28:18-19)

Jacob is not worshipping the stone; he poured oil to show respect.

Later he returns to Bethel and God orders him to build an altar:

Then God said to Jacob, "Go up to Bethel and settle there, and build an altar there to God, who appeared to you when you were fleeing from your brother Esau." (Genesis 35:1)

Jacob set up a stone pillar at the place where God had talked with him, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. Jacob called the place where God had talked with him Bethel. (Verses 14-15)

The verses are self-explanatory, Jacob never worshipped the pillar which he made with his own hands, yet he poured oil and made a “drink offering”. The Prophet respected the Black stone because God gave it as a gift to mark the place of Tawaaf; he never glorified the stone by pouring oil. So these Prophets are not guilty of idolatry, only a fool would believe that.

Mary anoints the feet of Jesus:

Then Jesus six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead. There they made him a supper; and Martha served: but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the table with him. Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.  (John 12:1-3) 

Jesus was kissed by a woman; she was obviously not worshipping him.

You did not give me a kiss, but this woman, from the time I entered, has not stopped kissing my feet. You did not put oil on my head, but she has poured perfume on my feet. Therefore, I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven—for she loved much. But he who has been forgiven little loves little." (Luke 7:45-47)

Aaron was anointed with oil, he was not being worshipped!

Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and wash them with water. Take the garments and dress Aaron with the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod itself and the breastpiece. Fasten the ephod on him by its skillfully woven waistband.  Put the turban on his head and attach the sacred diadem to the turban.  Take the anointing oil and anoint him by pouring it on his head.  Bring his sons and dress them in tunics (Exodus 29:4-8)

The Bible clarifies that kissing is not worship:

The LORD said to Aaron, "Go into the desert to meet Moses." So he met Moses at the mountain of God and kissed him. (Exodus 4:27)

So Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him. They greeted each other and then went into the tent. (Exodus 18:7)

So all the people crossed the Jordan, and then the king crossed over. The king kissed Barzillai and gave him his blessing, and Barzillai returned to his home. (2 Samuel 19:39)

The Bible shows that even bowing is not worship:

After the boy had gone, David got up from the south side of the stone and bowed down before Jonathan three times, with his face to the ground. Then they kissed each other and wept together—but David wept the most. (1 Samuel 20:41)

He put the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. He himself went on ahead and bowed down to the ground seven times as he approached his brother.  But Esau ran to meet Jacob and embraced him; he threw his arms around his neck and kissed him. And they wept.(Genesis 33:2-4)

When Joseph came home, they presented to him the gifts they had brought into the house, and they bowed down before him to the ground. (Genesis 43:26)

He asked them how they were, and then he said, "How is your aged father you told me about? Is he still living?" They replied, "Your servant our father is still alive and well." And they bowed low to pay him honor. (Genesis 43:27-28)

Watch the field where the men are harvesting, and follow along after the girls. I have told the men not to touch you. And whenever you are thirsty, go and get a drink from the water jars the men have filled." At this, she bowed down with her face to the ground. She exclaimed, "Why have I found such favor in your eyes that you notice me—a foreigner?"  (Ruth 2:9-10)

All of these examples prove Muhammad’ kissing of the Black stone is a form of respect, not worship.

Another piece of evidence is that the temple of Solomon is made of stone, is worshipping towards the Temple idolatry?

At the king's command they removed from the quarry large blocks of quality stone to provide a foundation of dressed stone for the temple. The craftsmen of Solomon and Hiram and the men of Gebal cut and prepared the timber and stone for the building of the temple. (1 Kings 5:17-18)

Now read this:

"I will bow down toward your holy temple and will praise your name for your love and your faithfulness, for you have exalted above all things your name and your word.  (Psalm 138:2)

Bowing towards the temple is not idolatry, bowing towards the Holy Kaaba is not idolatry, and kissing the Black stone is not idolatry. All of these substances are made of stone, dust particles, they are basically the same! (Deuteronomy 4:28, 29:17)



In order to justify Muhammad’s act of idolatry, some Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") contend that the building of the Kabah and the placement of the black stone was done by Abraham and his son Ishmael, since they erroneously believe that the latter settled in Mecca. The idea here is that Muhammad couldn’t have committed idolatry for kissing a stone placed there by his alleged ancestor Abraham under the direct orders of God.

There are three main problems with this Muslim logic. First, there is no evidence that Abraham and Ishmael ever went to Mecca, or that they were the ones that originally built the Kabah. Apart from the statements of the Quran, Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") are unable to provide any biblical or pre-Islamic evidence for this claim.



We shall present the evidence as concise as possible because the topic is vast, we shall write a separate article on this insha-Allah.

Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") believe on the authority of God’s Word that Abraham and Ishmael visited Mecca (Al-Quran 2:127).

Ishmael and Hagar settled in the desert of Paran, or Mecca:

God was with the boy as he grew up. He lived in the desert and became an archer. While he was living in the Desert of Paran, his mother got a wife for him from Egypt. (Genesis 21:20-21)

Christians do not believe that Paran is Mecca, yet the Arabic form of Paran is Faran, which means “two refugees”.

The Arabic form of the word Paran is Faran or Pharan. It means "two who migrated." It appears that the place took its name from Hagar and Ishmael who came there as two refugees. (1)

Paran is a reference to the city of Makkah in the Arabian Peninsula. The wilderness of Paran is where Abraham's wife Hagar and his eldest son Ishmael settled (Genesis 21:21) in the Arabian desert, specifically, Makkah. Makkah is, of course, the capital of Islam in Arabia and the birthplace of Mohammed (pbuh). Mount Paran is the chain of mountains in that same region which the Arabs call the "Sarawat mountains". (2)

The Lebanese Christian, Kamal Salibi, places Paran in close proximity to Makkah. On page 215 of his book `The Bible Came from Arabia' he says: ".. the place in question could have been Faran, in the Zahran highlands, bordering on the basaltic desert of Harrat Al-Buqum. In any case, this Faran was no doubt the Biblical Paran" (Faisal Siddiqui, The Bible’s Last Prophet, p. 40)

Men acquainted with the geography of Arabia unanimously say that “PARAN” is the name of a mountain in Hijaz. The Mu’jam al-Buldan states it in plain words. But Christians cannot agree to it. The controversy demands lengthy argumentation that would look like entering upon a scholastic polemic and hence we had better leave it alone. Nevertheless, it is necessary to tell our readers where the northern boundary of Arabia ran in those days. Monsieur le Baun, in his book Tamaddun Al-Arab says, “The northern boundary of this peninsula is not clear and easy to determine. As line drawn from Gaza, a town in Palestine on the Mediterranean coast,, to the south of the sea of Lot and thence to Damascus, and from Damascus to the river Euphrates, and then running parallel to the river up to the Persian Gulf, may fairly represent the northern frontiers of Arabia”. This clearly shows that the portion of Arabia known as Hijaz was quite likely to be reckoned as included in Paran. The Torah further points out the place where Ishmael was settled: “And the dwelt from Havilah, to Shur, which is opposite of Egypt on the route to Assyria”. According to this delimitation the land lying just facing Egypt could be no other than Arabia.

Christian writers devote most of their attention to the Israelites, making only casual references to the Ishmaelites. It is for this reason that nothing is definitely said about Ishmael having settled in Arabia. Still there are certain allusions which lead one to conclude that the migration of Hajira to Arabia had been a recognized fact. In his letter to the Galatians, Paul says:

“For it is written that Abraham had two sons one by a slave and one by a free woman. But the son of the slave was according to the flesh, the son of the free woman through a promise. Now this is allegory; these women are two covenants. One is Mount Sinai, in Arabia; she corresponds to the present Jerusalem”. (Gal. 4:25)

Whatever the original words, the language as it stands is not without ambiguity both in Arabic and in Urdu translations. So much is, however, clear that St. Paul, the greatest successor to Christ, called Hajira to be Sinai of Arabia. Had Hajira not taken her abode in the land known as Arabia, St. Paul should never have called her by this name. (Shibli N’umani, A Biography of the Prophet, 1995, pp. 118-119)

According to Muslim geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, Paran is Mecca:

“Faaraan: After the alif there is a raa' and it ends in a nun. An Arabicized Hebrew word. It is one of the names for Mekkah mentioned in the Torah. It has been said that it is a name for the mountains of Mekkah. Ibn Makulan Abu Bakr Nasr Ibn al-Qaasim Ibn Qudaa`ah al-Qudaa`i al-Faaraani al-Iskandari said "I have heard it is a reference to the mountains of Faaraan, that is to say, the mountains of the Hijaaz. In the Torah God came from Sinaa' and dawned from Saa`iir and became known from Faaraan"; they are the mountains of Filastiin, and it is His sending down of the Injiil upon Isa, peace be upon him, and His revealing from Mount Faaraan the fact of His sending down the Qur'an upon Muhammad, peace be upon him. It is said Faaraan is the mountain of Mekkah; Faaraan is also a village in the region of Sughd, one of the provinces of Samarqand, to whom Abu Mansuur Muhammad Ibn Bakr Ibn Isma`iil al-Samarqandi al-Faaraani traces his origins. This was transmitted from Muhammad Ibn al-Fadl al-Larmaani and Nasr Ibn Ahmad al-Kindi the Qur'anic scholar, from whom Abu al-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad al-Kaaghidhi al-Samarqandi transmitted. Abu Abd Allah al-Qudaa`i said, "Faaraan and al-Tur are two districts in southern Egypt." (Yaqut al-Hamawi, Mu'jam al-Buldan, Vol. III, p.834)

During the age of Prophet Muhammad, the Arabs practiced archery:

Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa:

The Prophet passed by some people of the tribe of Bani Aslam who were practicing archery. The Prophet said, "O Bani Ismail ! Practice archery as your father Isma'il was a great archer. Keep on throwing arrows and I am with Bani so-and-so." So one of the parties ceased throwing. Allah's Apostle said, "Why do you not throw?" They replied, "How should we throw while you are with them (i.e. on their side)?" On that the Prophet said, "Throw, and I am with all of you." (1)

Ishmael settled in Mecca and passed the skill of archery to his descendants (the Arabs).

God was with the boy as he grew up. He lived in the desert and became an archer. While he was living in the Desert of Paran, his mother got a wife for him from Egypt. (Genesis 21:20-21)

The book of Genesis confirms the Hadith; archery was indeed passed onto the Arabs from Ishmael.

He got married and had twelve sons; Kedar is the second:

These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, listed in the order of their birth: Nebaioth the firstborn of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, (Genesis 25:12)

These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names, by their villages and by their encampments, twelve princes according to their tribes. (verse. 16)

Kedar is the father of Quraysh (Arabs), a tribe named after him, the Prophet descended from this very tribe!

There is only one person named Kedar (Hebrew Qedar) in the Bible. He was one of the twelve sons of Ishmael who settled in the wilderness of Paran (Arabia)…In the Targums and in rabbinical literature, Arabia itself is sometimes called “Kedar” – a land that Kedarites inhabit. (Understanding the Bible through Koranic Message, p. 71, 1)

The Quraysh is mentioned in a prophecy about Muhammad (pbuh).

The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they prevented with their bread him that fled. For they fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, and from the bent bow, and from the grievousness of war. For thus hath the LORD said unto me, Within a year, according to the years of an hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall fail: And the residue of the number of archers, the mighty men of the children of Kedar, shall be diminished: for the LORD God of Israel hath spoken it.(Isaiah 21:13-17)

The scholar Faisal Siddiqui writes:

“…We are informed that “fugitives” of Kedar are “fleeing”, and the people of Dedan and Tema are told to help them. The verse then goes on to speak of these “fugitives” who have fled from “the swords, the drawn sword, and from the bent bow, and from the grievousness of war”. In the case of Prophet Muhammad and the Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more"), it is an escape from the psychological, economic and physical torture in Makkah to the freedom of worship in Madinah. In Makkah, Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") were incessantly harassed. They were made to lie on burning coals; some branded with hot metal rods; others killed by  having their bodies dismembered and poles pierced through them; they were forbidden to buy food, clothing, or any goods from the merchants in Makkah. It was from these afflictions that the Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") fled to find security in the new city of Madinah. The verse also stipulates that within a year, according to the years of a hireling, the glory of Kedar shall fail. Concerning this phrase, the Dead Sea Scrolls remark that the plural “years of a hireling” corresponds to “within three years”. Indeed, it was at the Battle of Badr, a little over a year after the “Hijrah”, that the glory of the descendants of Kedar, the pagan Quraysh, was diminished. This is because they resisted God and his Messenger. It was after the Battle of Badr, that the Quraysh began to decline which finally ended when Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") conquered Makkah. Accordingly, we see another prophecy fulfilled in person of Muhammad. Again, it should be remembered that the relation to Kedar makes the prophecy applicable to Muhammad alone. (The Bible’s Last Prophet, pp. 81-82)

Another prophecy is recorded concisely:

Sing unto the LORD a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof. Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. Let them give glory unto the LORD, and declare his praise in the islands. (Isaiah 42:10-12)

Faisal Siddiqui explains the prophecy:

The chapter begins with a general description of the forthcoming Prophet, “Behold my servant whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him” The description entails a person who is very dear and close to the Lord. Perhaps this description could apply to all of God’s Prophets; however, it does seem as if the one being spoken about is extraordinary. Nonetheless, the distinction arises with the next phrase, “He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles”. Ostensibly, this verse cannot be referring to Jesus [or any Jewish Prophet for that matter] because, as mentioned beforehand, Jesus himself declared that he was sent for the Jews. Furthermore, he refers to the non-Jews as “dogs” in Matthew 15:26: “But he answered and said, ‘It is not meet to take the children’s bread and cast it to their dogs’”. Nay, it is rather Muhammad who matches the description.

“...Because this prophecy is linked to Kedar, i.e. the Prophet described would be from the family of Kedar, we have no choice but to ascribe it as a reference to Prophet Muhammad. (ibid, pp. 50-51)

The Bible testifies that Kedar dwells in Arabia!

Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these were they thy merchants. (Ezekiel 27:21)

Needless to say, the “princes of Kedar” are the leaders of Quraysh.

Scholars agree that Quraysh is the Kedar tribe mentioned in the Bible.

Some Christian denominations are making tremendous progress now by acknowledging for the first time in history that Muhammad descended from Ishmael through his second son Kedar. The Davis Dictionary of the Bible (1980), sponsored by the Board of Christian Education of the Presbyterian Church in the USA, writes under the word "Kedar": "... A tribe descended from Ishmael (Gen. 25:13) ... The people of Kedar were Pliny's Cedrai, and from their tribe Mohammed ultimately arose." The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia quotes the following from A. S. Fulton: "... Of the Ishmaelite tribes, Kedar must have been one of the most important and thus in later times the name came to be applied to all the wild tribes of the desert. It is through Kedar ("Keidar" in Arabic) that Muslim genealogists trace the descent of Mohammed from Ishmael."

Also Smith's Bible Dictionary prints the following: "Kedar (black). Second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13) ... Mohammed traces his lineage to Abraham through the celebrated Koreish tribe, which sprang from Kedar. The Arabs in the Hejaz are called Beni Harb (men of war), and are Ishmaelites as of old, from their beginning. Palgrave says their language is as pure now as when the Koran was written (A.D. 610), having remained unchanged more than 1200 years; a fine proof of the permanency of Eastern Institutions." (1)

Kedar is a descendent of Ishmael (Genesis 25:13), and Ishmael is the base for the Family Tree of Prophet Muhammad through Kedar. (2)

Thus far, we have proven that Paran is Mecca where Ishmael grew up and became the father of the Arabs.

Abraham visited Beersheba, a place where Hagar and Ishmael dwelt:

Then Abraham returned to his servants, and they set off together for Beersheba. And Abraham stayed in Beersheba. (Genesis 22:19)

Why would Abraham only stop at Beersheba and not visit Hagar and Ishmael? He must have traveled to Paran because he loved Ishmael very much (Genesis 21:11). Even today, the Bedouin Arabs hold weekly markets in Beersheba 1

The Hadith records a tradition about Hagar and Ishmael settling in Mecca:

When Abraham had differences with his wife), (because of her jealousy of Hajar, Ishmael's mother), he took Ishmael and his mother and went away. They had a water-skin with them containing some water, Ishmael's mother used to drink water from the water-skin so that her milk would increase for her child. When Abraham reached Mecca, he made her sit under a tree and afterwards returned home. Ishmael's mother followed him, and when they reached Kada', she called him from behind, 'O Abraham! To whom are you leaving us?' He replied, '(I am leaving you) to Allah's (Care).' She said, 'I am satisfied to be with Allah.' She returned to her place and started drinking water from the water-skin, and her milk increased for her child. When the water had all been used up, she said to herself, 'I'd better go and look so that I may see somebody.' She ascended the Safa mountain and looked, hoping to see somebody, but in vain. When she came down to the valley, she ran till she reached the Marwa mountain. She ran to and fro (between the two mountains) many times. They she said to herself, 'i'd better go and see the state of the child,' she went and found it in a state of one on the point of dying. She could not endure to watch it dying and said (to herself), 'If I go and look, I may find somebody.' She went and ascended the Safa mountain and looked for a long while but could not find anybody. Thus she completed seven rounds (of running) between Safa and Marwa. Again she said (to herself), 'I'd better go back and see the state of the child.' But suddenly she heard a voice, and she said to that strange voice, 'Help us if you can offer any help.' Lo! It was Gabriel (who had made the voice). Gabriel hit the earth with his heel like this (Ibn 'Abbas hit the earth with his heel to Illustrate it), and so the water gushed out. Ishmael's mother was astonished and started digging. (Abu Al-Qasim) (i.e. the Prophet) said, "If she had left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.") Ishmael's mother started drinking from the water and her milk increased for her child . (1)

The Bible refers to Mecca as “Bacca”, and the place where the springs gushed out is now known as the Zam-Zam well:

Blessed are those whose strength is in you, who have set their hearts on pilgrimage. As they pass through the Valley of Baca, they make it a place of springs; the autumn rains also cover it with pools. [b] (Psalms 84:5-6)

The bolded words is alluding to the water that gushed out for Hagar, amazing, the Hajj is also mentioned, but concerning “Baca”, it’s just another name for Mecca!

In this Psalm, the word Baca or Bakka refers to no other place than Mecca. If not a proper name, it cannot be anything but a derivative from the Arabic root BUKA, which means “to weep”. The Jews and Christians, over-anxious to undermine the prestige of Mecca, have translated the word “BACA” as if it were “BUKA” meaning weeping.

But every sane man can for himself see that the “Valley of Weeping” is an absurdity in this context. The verses preceding the lines quoted above show that David in these lines is expressing the longing of a soul for Bacca, Marwah and the site where Ismail was laid for sacrifice.

How lovely is your dwelling place,
       O LORD Almighty!

My soul yearns, even faints,
       for the courts of the LORD;
       my heart and my flesh cry out
       for the living God.

Even the sparrow has found a home,
       and the swallow a nest for herself,
       where she may have her young—
       a place near your altar,
       O LORD Almighty, my King and my God.

Blessed are those who dwell in your house;
       they are ever praising you.

Blessed are those whose strength is in you, (Psalm 84:16)

It is to be noted that the place David desired to see had the following characteristics:

1.      It must have been the place of sacrifice

2.      It must have been far off from the abode of David; so that David could reach there after undertaking a long journey.

3.      It must have been known by the name of Bakka.

4.      There must have been another place also known as Morah

Taking these requisites into consideration it leaves no room for doubt that Bakka is no other place than Mecca of today and that Morah is no other place than Marwah. 

(Shibli N’umani, A Biography of the Prophet, 1995, p. 134)


Christians are ignorant of what the Bible says about Arabia, the land is mentioned several times:


Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country. (1 Kings 10:15)

Also some of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat presents, 
and tribute silver; and the Arabians brought him flocks... (2 Chronicles 17:11)

And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. (2 Chronicles 22:1)

Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with 
with thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these were thy (Ezekiel 27:7))

But it came to pass, that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth, (Nehemiah 4:7)

And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert, (Jeremiah 25:24)

Further evidence validates the prophecy fulfillment of Genesis 22:16-18 regarding Abraham’s descendants.

God promises to make Abraham a “great nation” before he had any sons.

"I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. (Genesis 12:2)

Ishmael was the firstborn son; he was born 14 years before Isaac.

The angel of the LORD also said to her: "You are now with child and you will have a son. You shall name him Ishmael, for the LORD has heard of your misery. (Genesis 16:11)

So Hagar bore Abram a son, and Abram gave the name Ishmael to the son she had borne. (Genesis 16:15)

God blesses Abraham again:

The LORD said to Abram after Lot had parted from him, "Lift up your eyes from where you are and look north and south, east and west. All the land that you see I will give to you and your offspring [a] forever. I will make your offspring like the dust of the earth, so that if anyone could count the dust, then your offspring could be counted. (Genesis 13:14-17)

And said, "I swear by myself, declares the LORD, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me." (Genesis 22:16-18)

The above prophecy refers to the Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more"), who outnumber the Jews and the Arab Christians. There are only 14 millions Arab Christians and 16 million Jews, yet there are 150 million Arab Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") who are descendants of Abraham, so the prophecy is fulfilled (Gen. 17:20, Matt. 21:43).

Abraham had resigned himself to the adoption of a child to be his heir but God promised him his own heir, proceeding from himself. Genesis 15:18 “In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates”. God promised to Abraham that his offspring, his progeny would inherit that territory that traversed the Rivers Nile and Euphrates. Today, these territories, referred to as the Middle East, from Egypt to Iraq and the surrounding areas are occupied by predominantly Muslim people – a promise fulfilled even today! The Jews of Israel, monotheists, also occupy part of that territory. (Farouk Hosein, Fundamentalism Revisited, 1996, p. 10, emphasis his)

Again, the verse is referring to the (Semitic) descendants of Abraham, namely the Israelites and Arabs, the words “all nations on earth” refer to the Muslim countries whose people descended from the seed of Abraham, who are “like the dust of the earth” (13:16) It is not speaking of the European Gentile nations that descended from Japheth, who was not included in the Covenant, only the children of Shem (Gen. 11:10-27).

They speak Semitic language, Hebrew and Arabic, not Latin or Greek, these are not Semitic languages that were spoken by the Hebrew Prophets, and the Last Prophet, Muhammad.

Jews and Arabs are extremely closely related, a new genetic survey has shown:

Wherever in the world they now live, Jewish men carry the same Y chromosome as Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese.

"Jews and Arabs are all really children of Abraham and all have preserved their Middle Eastern genetic roots over 4,000 years," said one of the scientists involved. Harry Ostrer, director of the Human Genetics Programme at New York University School of Medicine. The team analysed regions of the Y chromosome in 1,371 men from 29 populations worldwide. The Y chromosome passes largely unchanged down the male line. The results, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that the difference between Jewish and Arab populations is extremely small, considerably smaller than that between North and South African populations, for example. The study confirms that both Arabs and Jews owe their genes to a common ancestor population that predated the Jewish religion.


The Times (9 May 2000), Jews and Arabs United by Genes, The Journal of Babylonian ExilArch [Online Document]

Commenting on Genesis 22:12, Meherally writes:

If this argument is to be admitted and the belief associated with it to be affirmed as truth, then there is one important issue to be recognized. The said promise of blessing or grace “in your seed” appears in Genesis 22:18. It was made to Abraham “in the mount of the Lord”, then he had obeyed the command of his Lord, completed the ceremony of the sacrifice of his “only son”, and was about to return home with Ishmael. The said verse in its entirety reds: “And in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice”. Consequently, the said promise would relate to the seed of Ishmael who was living with Abraham at that time and was a partner in the ceremony of the sacrifice, in the mount of the Lord. Isaac was not yet in the picture. He was born years later. (Akbarlly Meherally, Understanding the Bible through Koranic Messages, p. 41)

We shall write a separate article which proves Ishmael is the sacrificial son, not Isaac.



Second, Abraham would never have placed a black idol for his descendants to kiss, especially when the same God who spoke to him had this to say to one of his descendants regarding the kissing and worshiping of visible objects:

"And God spoke all these words, saying, ‘I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.’" Exodus 20:1-6

"Remember the day you stood before the LORD your God at Horeb, when he said to me, ‘Assemble the people before me to hear my words so that they may learn to revere me as long as they live in the land and may teach them to their children.’ You came near and stood at the foot of the mountain while it blazed with fire to the very heavens, with black clouds and deep darkness. Then the LORD spoke to you out of the fire. You heard the sound of words but saw no form; there was only a voice. He declared to you his covenant, the Ten Commandments, which he commanded you to follow and then wrote them on two stone tablets. And the LORD directed me at that time to teach you the decrees and laws you are to follow in the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess. You saw no form of any kind the day the LORD spoke to you at Horeb out of the fire. Therefore watch yourselves very carefully, so that you do not become corrupt and make for yourselves an idol, an image of any shape, whether formed like a man or a woman, or like any animal on earth or any bird that flies in the air, or like any creature that moves along the ground or any fish in the waters below. And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars - all the heavenly array - do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshipping things the LORD your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven.’" Deuteronomy 4:10-19

In fact, we just read above what the Quran says that Abraham allegedly told his people regarding their idolatry. Here is it is once again:

He said, `Do you then worship, instead of ALLAH, that which cannot profit you at all, nor harm you? S. 21:66 Sher Ali



Let us respond to the first passage, Exodus 20:1-6, it teaches the Israelites not to make any graven images, and the law applies to Christians who are doing the exact opposite, the churches are filled with graven images of Jesus and Mary, statues of created beings!

Shockingly, the Bible records that Abraham bowed to created beings:

Abraham looked up and saw three men standing nearby. When he saw them, he hurried from the entrance of his tent to meet them and bowed low to the ground. (Genesis 18:2)

Then Abraham rose and bowed down before the people of the land, the Hittites. (Genesis 23:7, 12)

Should we call Abraham a pagan for bowing to human beings? Absolutely not! He was showing respect not worship. We have quoted several verses that show “bowing down” to a created being is not worship, but a form of respect. The Prophet demonstrated his love and respect for the heavenly Black stone. The Prophet never bowed before a created being, simply because it is not Arab culture.

Bowing: A mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" (Gen 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Gen 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Gen 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols (Jos 23:7; Kg2 5:18; Jdg 2:19; Isa 44:15), and to God (Jos 5:14; Psa 22:29; Psa 72:9; Mic 6:6; Psa 95:6; Eph 3:14).  (1)

Bowing is worse than kissing, yet the Prophet never bowed to the Black stone, the Prophets in the Bible bowed to others (Gen. 23:7, 1. Sam 20:41) but Prophet Muhammad only bowed to God.

The passage of Exodus 20:1-6 restricts graven images to be worshipped, the Israelites were forbidden to make any graven images as “gods”.  But kissing or bowing to a sacred stone from Heaven, or a holy man is not worship (2 Kings 2:15).

Christians will be held responsible for making graven images of Jesus and worshipping him. Graven images (statues) of Mary are also constructed, and the Roman Catholics worship Mary using the following prayer:

"Hail to thee, Mary, Mother of God, to whom in towns and villages and in island were founded churches of true believers" (1)

Yet the Holy Quran says:

Those whom they invoke besides Allah create nothing and are themselves created. (16:20)

Do they indeed ascribe to Him as partners things that can create nothing, but are themselves created? (7:191)

Yet have they taken, besides him, gods that can create nothing but are themselves created; that have no control of hurt or good to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor resurrection. (25:3)

Alfred Lamartine states:

"If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding results are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad?.... Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad." (Alfred de Lamartine, Historie de la Turquie, vol. 2, p. 276-277)

Prophet Muhammad was sent to destroy idol worship:

The Arabian Prophet, with a voice which was inspired by a deep communion with his Maker, preached the purest monotheism to the worshippers of fetish and the followers of a corrupted Christianity and Judaism. He put himself in open conflict with those regressive tendencies of mankind which lead to the association of other beings with the Creator.

In order to lead men to a belief in one God, he did not delude them with happenings which deviate from the normal course of nature. Rather, he simply invited them, without asking them to leave the realm of reality, to consider the Universe and its laws. Being confident of the resultant belief in the one and indispensable God, he simply let men read in the book of life.

Thanks to Islam, paganism in its various forms was defeated. The concept of the Universe, the practices of religion, and the customs of social life were each liberated from all the monstrosities which had degraded them, and human minds were made free of prejudice. Man finally realized his dignity. He humbled himself before the Creator, the master of all mankind. (Laura Veccia Vaglieri, An Interpretation of Islam, pp. 30-33)

Regarding Deuteronomy 4:10-19, it basically repeats the same as Exodus, God is formless and no man can see God and live (Exodus 33:20).

Yet the Bible describes God in human form:

Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden. (Genesis 3:8)

And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by: And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen. (Exodus 33:22-24)

I saw the LORD standing upon the altar: and he said, Smite the lintel of the door, that the posts may shake: and cut them in the head, all of them; and I will slay the last of them with the sword: he that fleeth of them shall not flee away, and he that escapeth of them shall not be delivered. (Amos 9:1)

The LORD is slow to anger and great in power; the LORD will not leave the guilty unpunished. His way is in the whirlwind and the storm, and clouds are the dust of his feet. (Nahum 1:3)

Smoke rose from his nostrils; consuming fire came from his mouth, burning coals blazed out of it. (2 Samuel 22:9)

He lifts up a banner for the distant nations, he whistles for those at the ends of the earth.   Here they come, swiftly and speedily! (Isaiah 5:26)

They will follow the LORD; he will roar like a lion. When he roars, his children will come trembling from the west. (Hosea 11:10)


The LORD recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the LORD God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust. (Ruth 2:12)




In fact, we just read above what the Quran says that Abraham allegedly told his people regarding their idolatry. Here is it is once again:

He said, `Do you then worship, instead of ALLAH, that which cannot profit you at all, nor harm you? S. 21:66 Sher Ali

In light of this supposed statement form Abraham, how can anyone be expected to believe that this patriarch then went on to place a black stone, which could neither benefit nor harm anyone (in the words of Umar), as an object of veneration?




Abraham rebukes his people for worshipping idols, Abraham rejected idol worship and he never worshipped created objects, his bowing before the Hittites (Genesis 23:7) and the three angels (Genesis 18:2) is not deification. As we mentioned earlier, bowing down is worse than kissing, Abraham was merely showing respect (we are repetitive because Shamoun just doesn’t get it).


Abraham did place the Black stone to mark the place of Tawaaf (circumambulation of the Kaaba).


And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more"), both before and in this (Revelation); that the Messenger may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to Allah. He is your Protector - the Best to protect and the Best to help! (Al-Quran 22:78)


Abraham is the one who named us Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more"), not Jews or Christians, because these religions did not exist.


Or do ye say that Abraham, Isma'il Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah. Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah. but Allah is not unmindful of what ye do! (Al-Quran 2:40)


Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but he was true in Faith, and bowed his will to Allah's (Which is Islam), and he joined not gods with Allah. (Al-Quran 3:67)





Finally, even if we were to accept for argument’s sake that Abraham did indeed place such a stone within the Kabah this still doesn’t justify what Muhammad did.





According to the Bible, Abraham did something worse, and there is no justification for what he did, unless of course, he was giving respect.


The Israelites worshipped the calf (Ex. 23:19, Deu. 9:7) and the god Baal (Num. 25:3, 1 Kings. 22:53) and God punished them (2 Chron. 29:5-10), so why didn’t He punish Abraham?


The Bible distinguishes between bowing of respect, and bowing of worship.


Bowing of Respect


Jacob looked up and there was Esau, coming with his four hundred men; so he divided the children among Leah, Rachel and the two maidservants. He put the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. He himself went on ahead and bowed down to the ground seven times as he approached his brother. But Esau ran to meet Jacob and embraced him; he threw his arms around his neck and kissed him. And they wept. (Genesis 33:1-4)


He asked them how they were, and then he said, "How is your aged father you told me about? Is he still living?"  They replied, "Your servant our father is still alive and well." And they bowed low to pay him honor. (Genesis 43:27-28)

Now when Joshua was near Jericho, he looked up and saw a man standing in front of him with a drawn sword in his hand. Joshua went up to him and asked, "Are you for us or for our enemies?"  "Neither," he replied, "but as commander of the army of the LORD I have now come." Then Joshua fell facedown to the ground in reverence, and asked him, "What message does my Lord have for his servant?" (Joshua 5:13-14)



Bowing of worship to idols


Do not associate with these nations that remain among you; do not invoke the names of their gods or swear by them. You must not serve them or bow down to them. (Joshua 23:7)


But may the LORD forgive your servant for this one thing: When my master enters the temple of Rimmon to bow down and he is leaning on my arm and I bow there also—when I bow down in the temple of Rimmon, may the LORD forgive your servant for this." (2 Kings 5:18)

It is man's fuel for burning; some of it he takes and warms himself, he kindles a fire and bakes bread. But he also fashions a god and worships it; he makes an idol and bows down to it. (Isaiah 44:15)


Bowing of worship to GOD

All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none can keep alive his own soul. (Psalms 22:29)

They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him; and his enemies shall lick the dust. (Psalms 72:9)

O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker. (Psalms 95:6)

Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, and bow myself before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? (Micah 6:6)

I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. (Isaiah 45:23)

There is complete justification for Abraham’s bowing, and there is justification for every Prophet who bowed to others, because it was not worship. The Holy Quran does not record such nonsense; the Quran purges the Prophets from the false descriptions in the Bible, they were sinless and pure.


We let the reader decide for himself, what is more blasphemous, bowing before a created being (Gen. 43:28), or kissing a stone from Paradise?


Bowing and kissing are forms of respect, we have repeated this several times for Shamoun to understand.



After all, the Bible itself shows what happens when individuals start to venerate an object which God commanded to be fashioned. God gave Moses the order to fashion a bronze serpent:

"From Mount Hor they set out by the way to the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom; and the people became impatient on the way. And the people spoke against God and against Moses, ‘Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless food.’ Then the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died. And the people came to Moses, and said, ‘We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD and against you; pray to the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us.’ So Moses prayed for the people. And the LORD said to Moses, ‘Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and every one who is bitten, when he sees it, shall live.’ So Moses made a bronze serpent, and set it on a pole; and if a serpent bit any man, he would look at the bronze serpent and live." Numbers 21:4-9

When the people of Israel started venerating this object God had the righteous king Hezekiah destroy it:

"In the third year of Hoshe'a son of Elah, king of Israel, Hezeki'ah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Abi the daughter of Zechari'ah. And he did what was right in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that David his father had done. He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Ashe'rah. And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had burned incense to it; it was called Nehush'tan." 2 Kings 18:1-4





The passage Numbers 21:4-9 apparently contradicts Exodus 20:1-6 where God forbids the Israelites to make graven images, God contradictorily tells Moses to fashion a bronze serpent.


God contradicts himself many times



Why did God order Moses to make a bronze serpent if he knew the Israelites would worship it? God knew the Israelites would defy the serpent because they previously worshipped the calf.


Yet instead of punishing Muhammad for kissing the Black stone, God gave success and victory to Muhammad to prevail over his enemies.


During the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet destroyed the 360 idols at the Kaaba, one by one they were smashed and the Kaaba was returned to its monotheistic purity.

When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'ba. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear. (Sahih Bukhari)

Allah's Apostle entered Mecca (in the year of the Conquest) and there were three-hundred and sixty idols around the Ka'ba. He then started hitting them with a stick in his hand and say: 'Truth (i.e. Islam) has come and falsehood (disbelief) vanished. Truly falsehood (disbelief) is ever bound to vanish.' (17.81) 'Truth has come and falsehood (Iblis) can not create anything.' (34.49) (Sahih Muslim)

When Allah's Apostle arrived in Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba while there were idols in it. So he ordered that they be taken out. The pictures of the (Prophets) Abraham and Ishmael, holding arrows of divination in their hands, were carried out. The Prophet said, "May Allah ruin them (i.e. the infidels) for they knew very well that they (i.e. Abraham and Ishmael) never drew lots by these (divination arrows). Then the Prophet entered the Ka'ba and said. "Allahu Akbar" in all its directions and came out and not offer any prayer therein. (Sahih Bukhari) 

Muhammad was beating the idols, the Old Testament states:


And all the graven images thereof shall be beaten to pieces, and all the hires thereof shall be burned with the fire, and all the idols thereof will I lay desolate: for she gathered it of the hire of an harlot, and they shall return to the hire of an harlot. (Micah 1:7)


Not only did the Prophet Muhammad beat the idols, he destroyed them completely, and the religion of Abraham was restored. Surely, God would never support an idolatrous prophet, even if he claimed to be true.


The Prophet followed the instructions of God given to the Israelites:


"Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When you cross the Jordan into Canaan, drive out all the inhabitants of the land before you. Destroy all their carved images and their cast idols, and demolish all their high places. Take possession of the land and settle in it, for I have given you the land to possess. (Numbers 33:51-53)


The Merciful Prophet never drove out the pagans when he conquered Mecca; he acted superiorly to this verse!

Oh, the beauty of pardon and forgiveness on the part of the mighty and powerful! How great is the soul of Muhammad which rose above hatred and above revenge, which denied every human feeling and ascended to heights of nobility man had never reached before! There were the Quraysh among whom were people whom Muhammad well knew had plotted to kill him, had persecuted him, and inflicted upon him and his companions all kinds of injury and harm, who fought him at Badr and at Uhud, who blockaded him in the Campaign of al Khandaq, who incited the Arab tribes to rise against him, and who would even then tear him apart if only they had the power. There, the whole of Quraysh stood totally under Muhammad's hand, indeed under his feet, totally subject to his command. Indeed, their very life depended upon the first word emerging from his lips. All these thousands of men, of Muslims  (Isaiah 56:5: Muslim is the future believers' name.  Sons and daughters titles will be "no more") in battle array, stood on the ready waiting for that one word to wipe out the whole of Makkah and its people within minutes. Muhammad, however was no less than Muhammad! He was no less than the Prophet of God! No alienation, antagonism, or hostility could find any permanent abode in his heart. His heart was absolutely free of injustice, of malice, of tyranny or false pride. In the most decisive moment, God gave him power over his enemy. But Muhammad chose to forgive, thereby giving to all mankind and all the generations the most perfect example of goodness, of truthfulness, of nobility and magnanimity. (1)   

“ The day of Muhammad’s greatest victory over his enemies was also the day of the grandest victory over himself. He freely forgave the Quraysh all the year of sorrow and cruel scorn with which they had afflicted him, and gave an amnesty to the whole population of Mecca……. No house was robbed, no woman insulted. One thing alone suffered destruction. Going to the Ka’abah, Muhammad stood before each of the three hundred and sixty idols, and pointed to them with his staff saying, ‘Truth is come, and falsehood is fled away!’ and at these words his attendants hewed them down and all the idols and household gods of Mecca and round about were destroyed…It was thus that Muhammad entered again his native city. Through all the annals of conquest there is no triumphant entry compared to this one. (2)


Furthermore, the Holy Quran identifies Islam as the Religion of Abraham:


They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To salvation)." Say thou: "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with Allah." (Al-Quran 2:135)



And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; "Oh my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam." (Al-Quran 2:132)



Or were ye present when death came to Jacob, when he said unto his sons: What will ye worship after me? They said: We shall worship thy God, the God of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, One God, and unto Him we have surrendered. (Al-Quran 2:133)



The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account. (Al-Quran 3:19)



Do they seek for other than the Religion of Allah.-while all creatures in the heavens and on earth have, willing or unwilling, bowed to His Will (Accepted Islam), and to Him shall they all be brought back. (Al-Quran 3:83)



Karen Armstrong writes:


When Muhammad began to preach in Mecca, he had only a modest conception of his role. He did not believe that he was founding a new universal religion but saw himself bringing the old religion of the one God to the Quraysh. (History of God, p. 140)




Thus, just because Muhammad may have erroneously believed that Abraham had placed the black stone at the Kabah, he still had no right to kiss it and thereby turn it into an object of idolatry.

As it stands, the evidence clearly shows that Muhammad expressly violated the Biblical teaching regarding idols and images, as well as the teachings of his own book the Quran.




Muhammad did not violate the teachings, he never constructed an idol, and he never bowed to the false idols, nor did he bow to the Black stone. The Quran forbids the worship of idols, false gods, and intercessors, but the Prophet Muhammad never considered the Black stone to be a god, an idol or intercessor, these are Shamoun’s delusions based on his severe misunderstanding of Prophet Muhammad’s life.


Let us see what the New Testament has to say about idolatry, we know Judaism and Islam forbid idolatry, and images of the Prophet Muhammad are strictly forbidden.


Yet Paul established idolatry when he said:


That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; (Philippians 2:10)


Should every knees bow to Jesus? Let us quote Jesus:


But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. (Matthew 15:9)


Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. (Mark 7:7)


"I do not accept praise from men, (John 5:41)


By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me. (John 5:30)



Jesus will judge only as he hears, and whatever he hears is from God (John. 12:49)


We see clearly that Jesus rejected idolatry, he rejected being worshipped, and only allowed being kissed or anointed, that is why he never forbade Mary to anoint, to kiss him, for the sake of expressing her love, because she believed he was the Messiah.


The Prophet Muhammad believed, on the basis of God’s inspiration, that the Black stone was sent from Paradise, yet he never anointed the stone.


Paul is idolatrous, as the Old Testament says:


I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. (Isaiah 45:23)


God rejects Paul outright, for uttering such blasphemy, all knees must bow to God, because Jesus is not God, and he never quoted Isaiah 45:23, instead he quoted Isaiah 29:13, “Their worship of me is made up only of rules taught by men” (Matt. 15:9).


Jesus never quoted Isaiah 45:13 as referring to himself.


Paul describes Jesus as a “god”, ascribing divinity to a man who never claimed divinity except by what was put into his mouth, for the Gospel of John is the “divine” Jesus, and the Synoptics hail the Human Jesus.


The deification of Jesus is like the Roman emperors, the Old Testament says:


Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the people which are round about you; (Deuteronomy 6:14)


Christians have abandoned the following verses:


Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. (Exodus 20:4)


Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. (Exodus 20:23)


All who worship images are put to shame, those who boast in idols— worship him, all you gods! (Psalms 97:7)



Christianity permits the making of images and kneeling to the cross, even the religion of Hinduism forbids this!

"All those who do idol worship, All those who worship demigods are materialistic people." Bhagavat Gita 7:19-21

: "...Of that God you cannot make any images." Yajur Veda 3:32

"God is formless and bodiless" Yajur Veda 32:3

"All those who worship the uncreated things, they are in
darkness, and you'll enter more into darkness if you worship the created things." Yajur Veda 40:8

"All Praise are to Him alone" Rig Veda, Vol.8,1:1

"There is only One God, worship Him." Rig Veda, Vol.6,45:16

Christendom has rejected the Old Testament’s law on graven images, and it’s worse because they bow to the cross and many saints are worshipped alongside Jesus!


What about the trinity? The trinity is a pagan doctrine that existed before Christianity, we have provided the evidence:





The scholar Tom Harper says:


In fact, very few preachers can give a reasonable account of either the doctrine of the Trinity of the doctrine of the Incarnation, that is, that Jesus was truly human and yet fully God. They repeat formulae that were worked out, with much quarrelling and bitterness, in the fourth and fifth centuries by men whose need, outlook, and the understanding of the universe were vastly different from our own. These formulae are no longer useful-instead, they raise an insurmountable barrier for many who might otherwise become disciples of Jesus in our day.


What is most embarrassing for the Church is the difficulty of proving any of these statements of dogma from the New Testament documents. You simply cannot find the doctrine of the Trinity set out anywhere in the Bible, St. Paul has the highest view of Jesus’ role and person, but nowhere does he call him God. Nor does Jesus himself anywhere explicitly claim to be the Second Person of the Trinity, wholly equal to his heavenly Father. As a pious Jew, he would have been shocked and offended by such an idea.


Over the last decade or so, I have talked as long and as frequently as possible about these particular doctrines with intelligent laypeople and clergy of all denominations, and I have found widespread confusion-in itself bad enough. But there is worse to come. This research has lead me to believe that the great majority of regular churchgoers are tritheists. That is, they profess to believe in one God, but in reality they worship three. (1)



The Prophet Muhammad is the most influential leader of all times.

"My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels."

The 100: A Ranking Of The Most Influential Persons In History, M.H. Hart, New York, 1978, p. 33 [1]  

How can the most influential leader be an idolater?


The Prophet Muhammad is the greatest leader of all time.

"Leaders must fulfill three functions: 1) Provide for the well being of the led, 2) Provide a social organization in which people feel relatively secure, and 3) Provide them with a set of beliefs … People like Pasteur and Salk are leaders in the first sense. People like Gandhi and Confucius, on one hand, and Alexander and Caesar on the other, are leaders in the second and perhaps the third sense. Jesus and Buddha belong in the third category alone. Perhaps the greatest leader of all time was Muhammad, who combined all three functions. To a lesser degree, Moses did the same." (Time magazine, July 15, 1974, article titled "Who were history's greatest leaders?," this quote by Jules Masserman. [2] 

How can the greatest leader of all time be an idolater? 





Rebuttals, and exposing the lies of the Answering Islam team section.

Rebuttals to Sam Shamoun's Articles section.

Rebuttal to Sam Shamoun's "Stone Kissing and Idolatry" article.

Back to Contradictions and Errors in the Bible.

Articles by Abdullah Smith.

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