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Orbits of Earth, Moon, & Sun

By
Frank

 

18 RELEVANT VERSES REGARDING THE SUN’S & MOON’S: ORBIT, ROTATION AND LIFE.

 

1) SURAH 10:5 "He it is who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light, and ordained for it mansions that you might know the computation of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create it but with truth; He makes the signs manifest for a people who know. M.H. Shakir

2) SURAH 55:5 "The sun and moon follow courses exactly computed." Yusaf Ali

3) SURAH 13:2 "Allah is he who raised the heavens without any pillars that you see, and he is firm in power and he made the sun and the moon subservient to you; each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may be certain of meeting your Lord." M.H. Shakir

4) SURAH 41:37 "And among his signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon; do not make obeisance to the sun nor to the moon." M.H. Shakir

5) SURAH 7:54 "He draws the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, all governed by laws under his command." Yusaf Ali

6) SURAH 16:12 "He has made subservient for you the night and the day and the sun and the moon, and the stars are made subservient by his commandment; most surely there are signs in this for a people who ponder. M.H. Shakir

7) SURAH 14:33 "And he has made subservient to you the sun and the moon pursuing their courses and he has made subservient to you the night and the day." M.H. Shakir

8) SURAH 31:29 "Allah makes the night to enter into the day, and he makes the day to enter into the night, and he has made the sun and the moon subservient to you; each pursues its course till an appointed time." M.H Shakir

9) SURAH 39:5 "He has created the heavens and the earth with the truth; He makes the night cover the day and makes the day overtake the night, and He has made the sun and the moon subservient; each one runs on to an assigned term. M.H Shakir

10) SURAH 35:13 "He causes the night to enter in upon the day, and he causes the day to enter in upon the night, and he has made subservient to you the sun and the moon; each one follows its course to an appointed time; this is Allah, your Lord" M.H Shakir

11) SURAH 36:37-40 "And a sign for them is the night: We withdraw there from the day, and behold they are plunged in darkness; 38 and the sun runs its course for a period determined for it; that is the decree of (him), the exalted in might, the all-knowing. 39 And the moon-we have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old (and withered) Lower part of a date stalk. 40 It is not permitted to the sun to catch up the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to law). Yusaf Ali

12) SURAH 21:33 "He it is who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; ALL ORBS travel along swiftly in their celestial spheres." M.H Shakir

 

13) SURAH 2:258 "God causes the sun to rise from the east." M.H Shakir

14) SURAH 18:17 "And you might see the sun when it rose,…and when it set…." M.H Shakir

15) SURAH 6:78 "Then when he saw the sun rising, he said is this my Lord, … so when it set…." M.H Shakir

16) SURAH 20:130 "Glorify your Lord…before the rising of the sun and before its setting." M.H Shakir

17) SURAH 18:86 "Until when he reached the place where the sun set, he found it going down into a black sea, and found by it a people." M.H. Shakir

18) SURAH 18:90 "Until when he reached the land of the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people to whom we had given no shelter from it." M.H. Shakir

 

Verses 1-4 are very CRITICAL verses. These verses are MOST CRITICAL because they state that the SUN AND THE MOON ARE ORBITING, ROTATING, OR HAVE A LIFE SPAN WITHOUT THE USUAL TANDEM OF WORDS that are included in many descriptions of the sun and the moon in the Quran. For example, the Quran constantly discusses aspects of the sun and moon (i.e. rotation, orbit or life) BUT it often includes the following words: "the night and the day and the sun and the moon." Unfortunately, many people often ACCIDENTALLY MAKE A CAUSAL CONNECTION between the description (I.E ROTATION, ORBIT OR LIFE) that the verse describes with the phenomenon of day or night. WHEN THE QURAN TALKS ABOUT "DAY AND NIGHT" WHILE ALSO INCLUDING A DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE SUN OR MOON (i.e. rotation, orbit or life), IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN THAT THE DESCRIPTION (i.e. rotation, orbit or life) IS CONNECTED to the phenomenon of day or night also discussed in the verse. Since there is an abundance of information regarding the sun and the moon spread out among many different verses, we must view ALL the information IN ITS ENTIRETY. The following 4 verses prove that the Quran clearly acknowledges that the sun and moon have their own ROTATION, ORBIT AND LIFE SPAN without necessarily CONNECTING it to the phenomenon of day or night.

1) SURAH 10:5 "He it is who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light, and ordained for it mansions that you might know the computation of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create it but with truth; He makes the signs manifest for a people who know. M.H. Shakir

2) SURAH 55:5 "The sun and moon follow courses exactly computed." Yusaf Ali

3) SURAH 13:2 "Allah is he who raised the heavens without any pillars that you see, and he is firm in power and he made the sun and the moon subservient to you; each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may be certain of meeting your Lord." M.H. Shakir

4) SURAH 41:37 "And among his signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon; do not make obeisance to the sun nor to the moon." M.H. Shakir

 

VERSES 5-12: DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SUN AND MOON INCLUDING THE TANDEM OF WORDS "the night and the day and the sun and the moon." The following verses 5-12 have much information packed into them and OVERLAP with the GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS in verses 1-4 above regarding the sun’s and moon’s ORBIT, ROTATION AND LIFE.

 

5) SURAH 7:54 "He draws the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, all governed by laws under his command." Yusaf Ali

6) SURAH 16:12 "He has made subservient for you the night and the day and the sun and the moon, and the stars are made subservient by his commandment; most surely there are signs in this for a people who ponder. M.H. Shakir

7) SURAH 14:33 "And he has made subservient to you the sun and the moon pursuing their courses and he has made subservient to you the night and the day." M.H. Shakir

8) SURAH 31:29 "Allah makes the night to enter into the day, and he makes the day to enter into the night, and he has made the sun and the moon subservient to you; each pursues its course till an appointed time." M.H Shakir

9) SURAH 39:5 "He has created the heavens and the earth with the truth; He makes the night cover the day and makes the day overtake the night, and He has made the sun and the moon subservient; each one runs on to an assigned term. M.H Shakir

10) SURAH 35:13 "He causes the night to enter in upon the day, and he causes the day to enter in upon the night, and he has made subservient to you the sun and the moon; each one follows its course to an appointed time; this is Allah, your Lord" M.H Shakir

11) SURAH 36:37-40 "And a sign for them is the night: We withdraw there from the day, and behold they are plunged in darkness; 38 and the sun runs its course for a period determined for it; that is the decree of (him), the exalted in might, the all-knowing. 39 And the moon-we have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old (and withered) Lower part of a date stalk. 40 It is not permitted to the sun to catch up the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to law). Yusaf Ali

12) SURAH 21:33 "He it is who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; ALL ORBS travel along swiftly in their celestial spheres." M.H Shakir

 

Verse 12: The Arabic verb "sabaha" (yasbahuna) in this verse means rotation on its own axis. The Arabic word "falak" used for planets and planets' movements in Verse 21:33 can mean movement in its own "celestial sphere." Therefore, the Quran states that ALL celestial bodies including the earth rotate on their own axis or in their "celestial sphere." If one wants to connect the phenomenon of night and day to the rotation of all celestial planets than this verse PROVES that the Quran CORRECTLY STATES that day and night is the result of the EARTH’S ROTATION!!!!!

12) SURAH 21:33 " "It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: ALL (the celestial bodies) rotate (yasbahuna), each in their celestial spheres (falak)." Yusaf Ali, M.H. Shakir

 

Verses 13-18. The following verses 13-18 illustrate how the Quran states that the sun rises in the East and sets in the West albeit through the earth’s rotation. I find no problem with these verses since we say the sun rises in the East and sets in the West in present day language. Moreover, we still use expressions such as the sun set into the sea, as is used in verse 18:86.

 

13) SURAH 2:258 "God causes the sun to rise from the east." M.H Shakir

14) SURAH 18:17 "And you might see the sun when it rose,…and when it set…." M.H Shakir

15) SURAH 6:78 "Then when he saw the sun rising, he said is this my Lord, … so when it set…." M.H Shakir

16) SURAH 20:130 "Glorify your Lord…before the rising of the sun and before its setting." M.H Shakir

17) SURAH 18:86 "Until when he reached the place where the sun set, he found it going down into a black sea, and found by it a people." M.H. Shakir

18) SURAH 18:90 "Until when he reached the land of the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people to whom we had given no shelter from it." M.H. Shakir

 

THE SUN’S LIFE:

The sun is at an early stage in its existence; it should last about another 5.5 billion years. During this period hydrogen transforms into helium, with the resulting expansion of its external layers and the cooling of the sun. In the final stage, its light is greatly diminished and density considerably increased. This is to be observed in the type of star known as a white dwarf. Verse 36:38 clearly establishes the end of the sun’s life when we see that this verse is connected by the word "and" to the words "old" and "returns" in verse 36:39. These words "old" and "returns" seem to suggest an elapsed period of time that is very long. Moreover, the translation for verse 36:38 is a "period determined" or the word "mustaqarr" which means a final end. The word "Mustaqarr" used in verse 36:38 is different from the word "Ajaleen Mossama" or "appointed time" used in verses 13:2, 31:29, 39:5 and 35:13 (which could relate to orbit or rotation or life span.) The above dates are only of interest in as far as they give a rough estimate of the time factor involved, what is worth remembering and is really the main point of the above, is the notion of an evolution. Modern data allow us to predict that, in a few billion years, the conditions prevailing in the solar system will not be the same as they are today. Like other stars whose transformations have been recorded until they reached their final stage, it is possible to predict an end to the Sun. (Bucaille)

 

THE SUN’S & MOON’S ORBIT:

The sun and moon have their own orbits in the universe. Verse 36:40 clearly establishes the existence of the Sun’s and Moon’s orbit by stating that the sun will not "catch" (Yusaf Ali) or "overtake" (M.H. Shakir) the moon: i.e. the "sun," "moon," "day" and "night" will remain separate phenomenon since the sun and moon travel in their own orbits and hence will never collide. If the sun and moon were not in their own "exact" orbits (55:5), the phenomenon of "day" and "night" would most certainly be affected. The moon orbits around the earth every 29.5 days while it also is orbiting the sun along with the earth. The sun orbits the galaxy; to complete one revolution on its own axis, the galaxy and Sun take roughly 250 million years. The sun travels at roughly 150 miles per second in the completion of this. (Bucaille)

 

THE SUN ‘S & MOON’S ROTATION:

The sun and moon rotate on their own axis. The Arabic verb "sabaha" (yasbahuna) in verse 21:33 means rotation on its own axis. The Arabic word "falak" used for planets and planets' movements in Verse 21:33 can mean movement in its own "celestial sphere." Therefore, verse 21:33 establishes the existence of the Sun’s and Moon’s rotation on their own axis or in their "celestial sphere." The moon completes its rotating motion on its own axis at the same time as it orbits around the earth, i.e. 29.5 days, so that it always has the same side facing us. The sun takes roughly 25 days to revolve on its own axis. There are certain differences in its rotation at its equator and poles, but the sun is animated by a rotating motion. (Bucaille)

 

THE EARTH’S ORBIT & ROTATION:

The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 25,000 miles. The Earth rotates in about 24 hours. Therefore, if you were to hang above the surface of the Earth at the equator without moving, you would see 25,000 miles pass by in 24 hours, at a speed of 25000/24 or just over 1000 miles per hour. The earth is also orbiting around the Sun at about 67,000 miles per hour; it takes the earth one year to complete its orbit around the sun. The earth tilts at different angles to the sun, as it revolves in orbit around the sun, causing the 4 seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter.) When the earth's north polar axis is tilted most toward the sun, it's summer in the northern hemisphere, tilted furthest away, winter. Verse 21:33 clearly establishes these facts:

12) SURAH 21:33 " "It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: ALL (the celestial bodies) rotate (yasbahuna), each in their orbit/celestial sphere (falak)." Yusaf Ali, M.H. Shakir

Here an essential fact is clearly stated: the existence of orbits and rotation for all celestial bodies. This clearly describes what is happening to the earth as it rotates every 24 hours while it also orbits around the sun during a year’s time.

 

THE DEFINITION OF THE ARABIC WORD "FALAK":

The Arabic word falak has often been translated as 'orbit' or 'sphere' depending on the context of the verse. Si Hamza Boubekeur in his translation of the Quran cites the diversity of interpretations given to it: "A sort of axle, like an iron rod, that a mill turns around; a celestial sphere, orbit, sign of the zodiac, speed, wave . . .", but he adds the following observation made by Tabari, the famous Tenth century commentator: "It is our duty to keep silent when we do not know." (XVII, 15). This shows just how incapable men were of understanding this concept of the Sun's and Moon's orbit or rotation. These concepts were not to be explained until centuries later. (Bucaille)

 

There are two very important verses that use the word "Falak."

Two Possible Translations:

 

1) --Sura 21, verse 33:
"(God is) the One Who created the night, the day, the sun and the moon. All the celestial bodies rotate with their own motion (yasbahuna) as they travel in their own orbit/sphere (falak)."

In the above verse the word "falak" can be translated as "celestial sphere" (M.H. Shakir); this would mean that all celestial bodies rotate in their own "sphere." The word "falak" in this verse could also be translated as "orbit;" this would mean that all celestial bodies rotate as they travel in their own orbits. It is up to the reader to decide how to translate "falak."

In the following verse the word "falak" most likely should be translated as "orbit" (Yusaf Ali). This is because verse 36:40 states that the sun must not "catch" (Yusaf Ali) or "overtake" (M.H. Shakir) the moon. This clearly refers to the sun and moon traveling in their own orbits; there will never be a collision between the sun and the moon.

 

2)--Sura 36, verse 40:
"The sun must not catch up the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. Each one is rotating with its own motion (yasbahuna) as they travel in their own orbit (falak)."

These 2 verses clearly state the existence of the Sun's and Moon's orbit and rotation (36:40), plus a reference is made to the travelling of ALL celestial bodies in space with their own motion: i.e. rotation (yasbahuna ) as they travel in a "falak" celestial sphere/orbit (21:33).

 

THE DEFINITION OF THE ARABIC WORD "YASBAHUNA":

The Arabic word referring to a movement with a self-propelled motion is the verb sabaha (yasbahuna in the text of the above two verses). All the senses of the verb imply a movement that is associated with a motion that comes from the body in question. If the movement takes place in water, it is 'to swim'; it is 'to move by the action of one's own legs' if it takes place on land. For a movement that occurs in space, it is difficult to see how else this meaning implied in the word could be rendered other than by employing its original sense, i.e. ROTATION. (Bucaille)

 

 

 

 

 

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