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Oceanography and the layers of waves and darkness in the seas.

The barriers between the seas' waters.

 

VIDEOS proving the Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran

Seas don't mix, and the earth's orbit in the Noble Quran.

Seas do not mingle according to the Noble Quran.

 

 

 

The darkness of oceans and disappearance of light was mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science:

The sections of this article are:

1-  The Noble Quran's claim.
2-  Scientific articles and proofs.
3-  Dr. Harun Yahya's Scientific Proofs.
4-  More web sites with lots of scientific evidence and quotes.

 

 

1-  The Noble Quran's claim:

"Or (the Unbelievers' state) is like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with billow topped by billow, topped by (dark) clouds: depths of darkness, one above another: if a man stretches out his hands, he can hardly see it! for any to whom God giveth not light, there is no light!   (The Noble Quran, 24:40)"

"Or, Who guides you through the depths of darkness on land and sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy? (Can there be another) god besides God?- High is God above what they associate with Him!  (The Noble Quran, 27:63)"

 

2-  Scientific articles and proofs:

The following articles are mixed between Muslim and non-Muslim web sites.  However, in all articles, ample scientific evidence from non-Muslim sources and books which were written by specialized scientists were provided.   Therefore, all of the articles below are objective.

 

Article 1:

This article was taken from http://www.evidencesofcreation.com/miracles_01_18.htm

Darkness in the Seas and Internal Waves

"Or (the unbelievers' state) are like the darkness of a fathomless sea which is covered by waves above which are waves above which are clouds, layers of darkness, one upon the other. If he puts out his hand, he can scarcely see it. Those God gives no light to, they have no light."
(The Qur'an, 24:40)

The general environment in deep seas is described in the book named Oceans:

The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all.(12)

Today, we know about the general structure of the sea, the characteristics of the living things in it, its salinity, as well as the amount of water it contains, its surface area and depth. Submarines and special equipment, developed with modern technology, enable scientists to obtain this information.

Human beings are not able to dive more than 40 meters down without the aid of special equipment. They cannot survive unaided in the deep, dark parts of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters. For these reasons, scientists have only recently been able to discover these detailed pieces of information about seas. However, the statement of "darkness in a deep sea" was used in Sura Nur 1,400 years ago. It is certainly one of the miracles of the Qur'an that such information was given at a time where no equipment to enable man to dive into the depths of the oceans was available.

Measurements made with today's technology have revealed that between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the surface of the sea. Then, almost all of the seven colours of the light spectrum are absorbed, one after another, in the first 200 meters, except for blue light (picture at left). Below a depth of 1,000 meters, there is no light at all. (above picture). This scientific fact was pointed out in the verse 40 of Sura Nur in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.
 

In addition, the statement in verse 40 of Sura Nur "…like the darkness of a fathomless sea which is covered by waves above which are waves above which are clouds…" draws our attention to another miracle of the Qur'an.

The picture to the left represents internal waves at interface between two layers of water of different densities. The lower layer is denser then the upper one. This scientific fact, declared in verse 40 of Sura Nur of the Qur'an 14 centuries ago, has been discovered by today's scientists only very recently.


Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves, which "occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities." These internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because deep water has a higher density than the water above it. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.(13)

The statements in the Qur'an run absolutely parallel to the above explanation. Without research, one can only see the waves on the surface of the sea. It is impossible for one to know about the internal waves beneath the sea. Yet, in Sura Nur, God draws our attention to another type of wave that occurs in the depths of the oceans. Certainly, this fact, which scientists has discovered very recently, shows once again that the Qur'an is the word of God.


12- Elder, Danny; and John Pernetta, 1991, Oceans, London, Mitchell Beazley Publishers, p. 27
13- Gross, M. Grant; 1993, Oceanography, a View of Earth, 6. edition, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall Inc., p. 205

 

Article 2:

This article was taken from http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/november01_index.php?l=3

WATER IN THE LIGHT OF THE QUR'AN

" Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds. Darkness, one above another if a man streches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For any to whom God giveth not light, there is no light! "
<Qur'an-Al Noor 24:40>

The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment.
Almost all of the seven colors of the light spectrum are absorbed one after another in the first 200 meters, except the blue light. (Source : Oceans, Elder and Pernetta)

Thanks to special equipment and submarines, scientists were able to dive into the depths of the oceans,and discover the darkness of the oceans. Some scientists have interpreted the "layer upon layer of darkness" to be the gradual separation of the light spectrum within the ocean, one color at a time until complete darkness is finally achieved. In other words, at one depth, the yellow bandwidth is suppressed and "yellow darkness" is achieved. At another depth, the green bandwidth is suppressed and "green darkness" is achieved, and so forth.

Also the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the second set of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the first waves? Actually, scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities”. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.

" It is He who has caused to mix freely the two great bodies of water, this one pleasant-tasting and sweet and this one salty and bitter, and He made between them a barrier and a forbidding ban."
<Qur'an-Furqan 25:53>


" He has let free the two bodies of flowing water meeting together.Between them is a barrier which they do not trangress."
<Qur'an-Al Rahman 55:19-20>

Modern science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density. Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier.

 

Occasionally, water becomes very heavy due to its high salinity. An example of this is the Mediterranean Sea. The water flowing outward through the Gibraltar Sill has greater salinity than the adjacent water of the Atlantic Ocean, and because it is heavier, it sinks. This Mediterranean flow can be tracked as a tongue of high salinity water most of the way across the Atlantic Ocean. This means that the incoming flow of sea water from the Mediterranean Sea does not admix or combine with the sea water of the Atlantic Ocean. The incoming flow does not loose its identity after traveling a short distance. Surprisingly, the flow from the Mediterranean Sea keeps on traveling "most of the way across the Atlantic Ocean". Since the area of the Atlantic Ocean is about 31,831,000 square miles, it is a very vast distance covered by this flow. The picture above shows that this high density water is like a protruding "tongue" surrounded by the low Density water.
(Source : Principles of Oceanography, Davis)

There are many other scientific statements made in the Qur'an which were only discovered to be scientifically accurate only recently. They range over many fields of science including Anatomy, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Hydrology, and many other disciplines which are only beginning to be addressed by scientists today.

 

Article 3:

This article was taken from http://siobiolum.ucsd.edu/Biolum_article.html

Biological Light in the Ocean Darkness

by Michael I. Latz
Scripps Institution of Oceanography


The setting sun fortells an incredible transformation occurring beneath the ocean surface. As darkness descends, the water becomes alive with displays of bioluminescence -- living light produced by a myriad of organisms -- that has a major impact on virtually all biological communities. If you study bioluminescence as I do, your day is just beginning.

In the ocean, bioluminescent organisms are everywhere, inhabiting all depths covering all the world's oceans. Remember the spectacular red tide last year? A giant bloom of phytoplankton -- plant-like microscopic organisms -- discolored the water brown due to their immense numbers, as many as 2 million cells per liter. To me the most memorable feature occurred not during the day but at night. These cells produced bioluminescence that highlighted breaking waves with streaks of electric blue light, and traced the paths of swimming fish. The red tide phytoplankton use their flashes as a burglar alarm so they won't get eaten; in this case, the "burglar" is the animal trying to eat them. In doing so, it stimulates the cells to make flashes of light, attracting still other predators which try to eat the burglar. So if you're not careful around these luminescent plankton, you'll end up in someone's stomach! It's enough to make you lose your appetite, which is exactly its purpose.

Even those animals not interested in eating dinoflagellates must be wary of their movements, because the ocean is like a luminescent minefield. Any inadvertent motion may set off an "explosion" of plankton luminescence which exposes the unlucky animal to hungry predators.

In the perpetual darkness of the deep sea, where sunlight never reaches, bioluminescence also serves other purposes. Angler fish grow luminescent bacteria in a special structure which dangles at the end of a stalk projecting from their forehead. Just as fisherman use a glowing lure for night fishing, in the perpetual darkness of the deep sea these fish attract prey by their glowing lures. Still other fish produce far-red beams of light from areas on their cheeks. Because most deep-sea animals can only see blue colors, the red luminescence serves as an invisible searchlight for finding prey or mates. Jellyfish so delicate that they disintegrate when touched emit brilliant displays of light when disturbed. Their message is leave me alone.

Whatever its purpose, bioluminescence is produced as a result of a chemical reaction which releases lots of energy. Unlike a light bulb, in which electrical energy is converted into light, with some energy lost as heat, the bioluminescent reaction is 100% efficient in channeling all the energy into light.

Bioluminescence serves man as well. The jellyfish biochemical system is used to measure calcium levels, while that of the firefly measures ATP, the primary energy source of all cells. The genes for the bacterial, firefly, and jellyfish luminescent proteins can be spliced into the genes of other organisms to monitor gene activity. When that gene is turned on, the cell glows! Trace amounts of chemicals and pollutants are detected using a bioluminescence test.

Interested in seeing bioluminescence in the San Diego area? Don't bother looking for fireflies, which fly around on balmy summer evenings using their light flashes to attract mates; they don't live here. Instead, view the flashlight fish at the Scripps Aquarium. These fish harbor luminescent bacteria in special organs in their cheeks. They shutter the light to make a Morse code of flashing for signaling their friends and attracting prey. More adventurous? Kayak in San Diego Bay and experience the glowing mating dance of thousands of swimming worms when the moon is right. Find a dark beach and check out the plankton bioluminescence stimulated by the breaking waves. Or go for that midnight swim and watch the sparkles of living light as you move through the water. And remember that bioluminescence is a natural part of how organisms interact with their environment and each other.

 

Article 4:

From http://record.wustl.edu/archive/2000/12-15-00/articles/deepsea.html

"Smith, in Alvin's tiny cockpit, was accompanied by an experienced pilot and another biologist in addition to a host of monitors, switches, gauges, and other equipment, including the hyperspectral imager. After the long, spiraling descent to the ocean floor, Smith and the others had five hours in total darkness to locate the vents and to conduct a variety of experiments, many of them for scientists anxiously waiting on the surface. Because the battery-powered Alvin has a dive duration of six to 10 hours, Smith had only about an hour to conduct his own experiments, which included obtaining spectra of the unique biological communities at the vents.

The bacteria found at the vents are remarkable in that their main energy source is hydrogen sulfide, a compound toxic to humans and other animals. The bacteria thrive in sulfur-rich water surrounding the vents --which ranges from 375 degrees C at the vent itself to just above freezing (2 or 3 degrees C) only a few inches away --by transforming the abundant sulfur there into a usable energy source, a process known as chemosynthesis. The bacteria don't need solar energy, unlike nearly all other biological communities, which use the sun for photosynthesis."

 

Article 5:

From http://www.emuslim.com/QuranandScience/Geology_Ocean.asp

DARKNESS IN THE DEPTHS OF THE OCEAN

Prof. Durga Rao is an expert in the field of Marine Geology and was a professor at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah. He was asked to comment on the following verse:

Al- Quran 24:40

“Or (the Unbelievers’ state) Is like the depths of darkness In a vast deep ocean, Overwhelmed with billow Topped by billow, Topped by (dark) clouds: Depths of darkness, one Above another: if a man Stretches out his hand, He can hardly see it! For any to whom Allah Giveth not light, there is no light!”

Answer:

Prof. Rao said that scientists have only now been able to confirm, with the help of modern equipment that there is darkness in the depths of the ocean. Humans are unable to dive unaided underwater for more than 20 to 30 meters, and cannot survive in the deep oceanic regions at a depth of more than 200 meters. This verse does not refer to all seas because not every sea can be described as having accumulated darkness layered one over another. It refers especially to a deep sea or deep ocean, as the Qur’aan says, “darkness in a vast deep ocean”. This layered darkness in a deep ocean is the result of two causes:

A light ray is composed of seven colours. These seven colours are Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red (VIBGYOR). The light ray undergoes refraction when it hits water. The upper 10 to 15 metres of water absorb the red colour. Therefore if a diver is 25 metres under water and gets wounded, he would not be able to see the red colour of his blood, because the red colour does not reach this depth. Similarly orange rays are absorbed at 30 to 50 metres, yellow at 50 to 100 metres, green at 100 to 200 metres, and finally, blue beyond 200 metres and violet and indigo above 200 metres. Due to successive disappearance of colour, one layer after another, the ocean progressively becomes darker, i.e. darkness takes place in layers of light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is complete darkness. (Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27. 1 2)

The sun’s rays are absorbed by clouds, which in turn scatter light rays thus causing a layer of darkness under the clouds. This is the first layer of darkness. When light rays reach the surface of the ocean they are reflected by the wave surface giving it a shiny appearance. Therefore it is the waves which reflect light and cause darkness. The un-reflected light penetrates into the depths of the ocean. Therefore the ocean has two parts. The surface characterized by light and warmth and the depth characterized by darkness. The surface is further separated from the deep part of the ocean by waves. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. The darkness begins below the internal waves. Even the fish in the depths of the ocean cannot see; their only source of light is from their own bodies.

The Qur’aan rightly mentions: “Darkness in a vast deep ocean overwhelmed with waves topped by waves”. In other words, above these waves there are more types of waves, i.e. those found on the surface of the ocean. The Qur’aanic verse continues, “topped by (dark) clouds; depths of darkness, one above another.”

These clouds as explained are barriers one over the other that further cause darkness by absorption of colours at different levels.

Prof. Durga Rao concluded by saying, “1400 years ago a normal human being could not explain this phenomenon in so much detail. Thus the information must have come from a supernatural source”.

 

Article 6:

This article was taken from http://www.pbs.org/saf/1207/teaching/teaching3.htm

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Sunlight that penetrates the ocean is absorbed as it passes through the surface layers of the water. Since solar radiation does not reach the ocean depths, the bottom of the deep ocean remains largely in complete darkness. However, certain animals in this extreme environment can generate light to communicate with each other, and even to lure prey, thanks to a process known as bioluminescence.

Bioluminescence is a form of chemiluminescence - the production of light through chemical means. In contrast to light generated by high temperatures which allows objects to get hot (such as light bulbs, stars, or fireplace pokers), this "cool" process relies on chemical reactions. When chemicals combine, they release the energy that has been stored in their chemical bonds. In chemiluminescent reactions, this stored energy is released as light. In most bioluminescent deep sea animals two basic chemicals - luciferin and luciferase-combine to produce light as a by-product of the reaction.

You may also have seen chemiluminescent sticks, bracelets, or other items that depend upon chemical reactions to produce light. If you examine these items closely, you will find that they consist of a sealed vial immersed within another liquid. When the inner vial is crushed, its contents mixes with the surrounding fluid. As the chemicals combine, they generate visible light. In this activity, you'll explore how the temperature of the chemicals that combine affects a chemiluminescent reaction. targets.

This activity page will offer:

 

MATERIALS

PROCEDURE

  1. Work in a team of three students. Identify a space in which the lights can be turned off and the shades drawn shut.
  2. Fill one beaker with ice water. Fill another with room temperature water. Fill a third one with lukewarm water.
  3. Insert a light stick in each of the water-filled beakers, but do not activate it. Try to immerse as much of the stick in the water bath as possible.
    NOTE: You may have to tie a small weight onto the stick to insure that it does not float to the surface.
  4. Wait several minutes. Then use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water in each of the three beakers. Record these values.
  5. Activate all three light sticks.
  6. Shut the room lights. Compare and contrast the brightness of the generated light. Which beaker contains the brightest stick? Which beaker contains the dimmest stick? Record you observations.
  7. If you have a digital camera, use it to capture a record of the light generated by these side-by-side tubes. Make sure that all three glowing sticks are included in the same single image. Once the image is taken, you can return the room lights to their normal level.
  8. At 15-minute intervals, dim the room lights. Use the digital camera to capture additional images of the three glowing light sticks.
  9. Continue comparing and contrast the relative brightness of the three sticks. If applicable, note the time at which each stick no longer appears to glow.

 

Questions

  1. In step 3, why was it necessary to place the light sticks in the water-filled beakers for several minutes before performing the activity?
  2. In step 6, why was it necessary to include all three sticks in the same image?
  3. In which beaker did the stick glow brightest?
  4. In which beaker did the stick glow dimmest?
  5. In which beaker did the glow last longest?
  6. In which beaker did the glow go away the quickest?
  7. Is the brightness of the glow related to the time that this effect lasts? Explain.
  8. The rate of a reaction is dependent upon several factors, including the temperature of the reaction vessel. How can this concept be applied to your observations?

EXTENSIONS

Glowing Artwork
Some animals have light organs that are concentrated around the eyes. Other organisms have strands of light spots that extend their whole body length. Check out this site to learn more about the placement patterns of light organs in fish, cephalopods, jellyfish and other organisms.

For this activity, you'll need both a set of standard watercolor paints and a small vial of glow-in-the-dark paint. You can obtain all of these non-toxic paints from a local art store or an Internet outlet. Use the standard paints to produce images of various deep-sea fish and invertebrates. Then, use the glowing paint to add a pattern of glowing spots to each drawing. Challenge students to identify the painted subjects by only the glowing patterns that are revealed in dimmed lighting.

WEB CONNECTION

The Ocean Depths
An overview of the deep ocean environment and the organisms that inhabit it.

Marine Bioluminescence
Scripts Institute of Technology presents a list of Internet sites that pertain to bioluminescence.

Fireflies-Illuminating a Brighter Future for Science
This site presents a small library of video clips captured by ROVs.


Answers

The activities in this guide were contributed by Michael DiSpezio, a Massachusetts-based science writer and author of "Critical Thinking Puzzles" and "Awesome Experiments in Light & Sound" (Sterling Publishing Co., NY).

Academic Advisors for this Guide:

Corrine Lowen, Science Department, Wayland Public Schools, Wayland, MA
Suzanne Panico, Science Teacher Mentor, Cambridge Public Schools, Cambridge, MA
Anne E. Jones, Science Department, Wayland Middle School, Wayland, MA


The Answers to the above article's 8 questions:

From http://www.pbs.org/saf/1207/teaching/answers3.htm

Questions

  1. In step 3, why was it necessary to place the light sticks in the water-filled beakers for several minutes before performing the activity?
    (During this time the temperature of the light stick chemicals changed to reflect the temperature of the surrounding water.)
  2. In step 6, why was it necessary to include all three sticks in the same image?
    (This way you could compare the relative brightness of the sticks).
  3. In which beaker did the stick glow brightest?
    (warm water)
  4. In which beaker did the stick glow dimmest?
    (ice water)
  5. In which beaker did the glow last longest?
    (ice water)
  6. In which beaker did the glow go away the quickest?
    (warm water)
  7. Is the brightness of the glow related to the time that this effect lasts? Explain.
    (Yes. The brightest glow (warm water) lasts the shortest time. Likewise, the dimmest glow (ice water), lasts the longest.)
  8. The rate of a reaction is dependent upon several factors, including the temperature of the reaction vessel. How can this concept be applied to your observations?
    (Warm water beaker: At a higher temperature, the reaction proceeded at a faster rate. This produced a brighter glow. Since the reactants were used up quicker, the glow ended sooner. Cold water beaker: In contrast, the cooled stick contained a slower reaction. This produced a reduced glow that lasted a longer period.)

 

3-  Dr. Harun Yahya's Scientific Proofs:

From http://www.miraclesofthequran.com/scientific_51.html:

DARKNESS IN THE SEAS AND INTERNAL WAVES

Or [the unbelievers' state] are like the darkness of a fathomless sea which is covered by waves above which are waves above which are clouds, layers of darkness, one upon the other. If he puts out his hand, he can scarcely see it. Those Allah gives no light to, they have no light. (Qur'an, 24:40)


 

Measurements made with today's technology have revealed that between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the surface of the sea. Then, almost all of the seven colours of the light spectrum are absorbed, one after another, in the first 200 metres, except for blue light (picture at left). Below a depth of 1,000 metres, there is no light at all (above picture). This scientific fact was pointed out in Sura Nur 40 in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.

In deep seas and oceans, the darkness is found at a depth of 200 meters and deeper. At this depth, there is almost no light, and below a depth of 1,000 meters there is no light at all.61

Today, we know about the general formation of the sea, the characteristics of the living things in it, its salinity, as well as the amount of water it contains, and its surface area and depth. Submarines and special equipment, developed with modern technology, have enabled scientists to obtain such information.


The picture to the left represents internal waves at interface between two layers of water of different densities. The lower layer is denser than the upper one. This scientific fact, declared in Sura Nur 40 of the Qur'an 14 centuries ago, has been discovered by today's scientists only very recently.

Human beings are not able to dive to a depth of more than 70 meters without the aid of special equipment. They cannot survive unaided in the dark depths of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters. For these reasons, scientists have only recently been able to discover detailed information about the seas. However, that the depth of the sea is dark was revealed in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago. It is certainly one of the miracles of the Qur'an that such information was given at a time where no equipment to enable man to dive into the depths of the oceans was available.

In addition, the statement in Surat an-Nur 40 "…like the darkness of a fathomless sea which is covered by waves above which are waves above which are clouds…" draws our attention to another miracle of the Qur'an.

Scientists have only recently discovered that there are sub-surface waves, which "occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities." These internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because deep water has a higher density than the water above it. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be discerned by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.62

The statements in the Qur'an run parallel precisely the above explanation. Certainly, this fact, which scientists has discovered very recently, shows once again that the Qur'an is the word of Allah.

61. Danny Elder, and John Pernetta, Oceans (London: Mitchell Beazley Publishers: 1991), 27.
62. M. Grant Gross, Oceanography, A View of Earth, 6th ed. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc.: 1993), 205.

 

 

4-  More web sites with lots of scientific evidence and quotes:

The following web sites have lots of quotes and further scientific proofs about the Noble Quran's claims:

http://www.sams.ac.uk/schools/intodeep.pdf

http://www.mostmerciful.com/chapter-10.htm

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep6c.htm

http://www.seasky.org/monsters/sea7a3.html

 

 

 

Back to Science in the Noble Quran and Islam.

Oceanology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.

 

AUDIOs from Dr. Zaghlool Al-Najjar

Oceanography and the layers of waves and darkness in the seas.

The barriers between the seas' waters.

 

VIDEOS proving the Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran

Seas don't mix, and the earth's orbit in the Noble Quran.

Seas do not mingle according to the Noble Quran.

 


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