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The Miracles of the Earth and the Moon

1-  The Miracles of Earth:

  • The 7 layers of earth and iron was sent down from space.
      

  • Allah Almighty Said in the Holy Quran that the Earth is:
      
    1- Spherical.
    2- Suspended in Space.
    3- Rotating around itself. (emphasis on dahaha and its derivatives)
    4- Is traveling in Space.
      
    5- Also, all celestial bodies are
    يعرجون Yaa'rujoon (traveling in orbits) in space.  The countless orbits in the Universe, and the day-layer reveals the sun's brightness.  This video is about Noble Verses 32:5, 34:2, 57:4, 70:3-4 and others, and the Arabic words عرج , عروج , معارج  and  معراج  that all refer to "going in an orbital and curvy path" in the Glorious Quran and our Islamic Texts.
      

    1. Video file.

    2. The Motion of Earth in the Noble Quran.

     
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the History Channel.
      

  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the Discovery Channel.
      

  • Was Adam 90 feet tall?  See how Science suggests that Prophet Muhammad's Hadith is Scientifically True.
      

  • Earth's gravity and the various gravities of the planets mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science.
      

  • The North and South Poles, and Prayer and Fasting Times.  The different SUNRISES and SUNSETS on earth (plural for both)
      

  • The breathing cycle during the day on planet earth by the plants, humans and animals - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
      

  • Lack of Oxygen and painful low pressure in space.  Science confirmed the Noble Quran's Divine Claim.
         

    1. Video file.

    2. Audio file.
        

  • Mountains prevent the earth from shaking while rotating around its own axle.
      

  • The Miracle of the Rain, Thunder and Electrical "fertilization" caused by winds in the Noble Quran!
         

    1. Audio file.

    2. Video file 1.
           

  • The Geological Miracle in Noble Verses 30:2-5 (the place where the Romans were defeated).  (Lowest Land on Earth Miracle)
      

  • Rebuttal to Shamoun's and Katz' "Sinking to Dead Sea Levels" article.
      

  • The location of the lowest land on earth (AUDIO).
      
      
      

  • The sun rays that we see during the day are different from the ones seen in space!  The Miracle of the atmosphere/Day-Layer magnifying the sun rays to make them glorious and bright as we see them everyday.

    1. The skinning of the day from the night Miracle.
        

  • Is it possible for the sun to rise from the West and for the sun to swallow the moon?  Islam makes this prediction!  New Scientific evidences in text and video, from Western scientific sources, about the planet Earth will turn upside down, - as it already did turn and modify its rotation before during the ice age and before, - which will cause for the Sun to rise from the West, was added.
      

  • The Ozone layer is a protective ceiling/roof to earth.
      

  • Our protective sky will eventually "release" its gases into space.
      

  • The Ozone layer is able to heal itself from damage - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
     

  • The Ozone layer is raised to balance air pressure and temperature - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
      

  • The Miracle of the Sky's Cycles in our Atmosphere - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and Confirmed by Science!
      

  • The land-sea ratio Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!  I personally calculated the occurrences of the Words in the Noble Verses in the Glorious Quran.
           

  • Swimming in Space by the Gravitational Waves - Mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
      

  • Darkness in the seas and internal waves in the Noble Quran, confirmed by science.
      

  • The expansion of the earth - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.
      

  • The Earth "Sutihat" (pressed and expanded), and the Bulging Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.
      

  • The bringing forth of the earth's waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after the expansion of the planet earth.  A new scientific video, from a Western scientist, confirms the stunning Scientific Miracle in Noble Verses 79:30-32 regarding Allah Almighty bringing forth the waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after He expanded the earth.  Scientists have proven that our planet earth, indeed, was at one point all covered with land with shallow and limited bodies of water.  The vast bodies of water that we have today, where water today covers more than 70% of the entire globe, happened after the expansion of the earth -- precisely as Allah Almighty mentioned in the Noble Quran.  Scientists have only recently confirmed it!
      

  • End of Times Volcanoes will be caused by the stretching of the earth's crust - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!


  •   
    1. Earthquakes occur before volcanoes, and the rising of earth's core's heavy metals during earthquakes, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
        

  • The Miracle of separating the salty seas' waters from each others (with barriers) - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

  • See the ample Scientific proofs that I've provided from NASA and other reputable sources that prove the Glorious Quran's Miracle.  Also in this video:
      


  • (Click on image to enlarge)
    Atheist Richard Dawkins refuted by Muslim girls on Halocline Phenomenon and Scientific Miracle
    in the Noble Quran. 
    Click to watch video.

      
      

  • 2-  The Miracles of the Moon:

    1. The moon's S-shaped orbit around earth is shaped like a branch of a date tree, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
        

    2. Moon is mentioned 28 times in the Noble Quran, exactly as the number of times and phases it appears to earth!
        

    3. The cracking of the moon mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!

      1. Images of the moon's fault line (crack).
          

    4. The Lunar Calendar is the most accurate calendar - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.  Also the precise calculation of difference between the Gregorian and Lunar calendars is demonstrated in the Noble Quran.

       

    AUDIOs from Dr. Zaghlool Al-Najjar

    Lack of Oxygen and low air pressure in space.

    The constant reduction of earth's size:  The earth used to be 200 times bigger!

    The location of the lowest land on earth.

    Iron was sent down to earth from space.

    The origins of the Universe, Big Bang theory, Cosmic Crunch, and the creation of the SECOND EARTH after the second Big Bang in the Noble Quran and Science.  Also, Dr. Zaghlool's scientific explanation of the earth and heaven coming to Allah Almighty "willingly or unwillingly" and how each celestial object behaves differently depending on its mass.

    The Cosmic Crunch and the creation of the second Universe and second earth.

    Time and the Speed of Light precisely calculated and mentioned in the Noble Quran.

         

    VIDEOS proving the Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran

    The moving mountains in the Noble Quran.

    The function of mountains.

    Related video I.
    Related video II.
    Related video III.
    Related video IV.
    Related video V.

    Iron was sent down from space - A Discovery Channel program with Noble Quranic Verses edited into it.

    Dr. Zaghlool Al-Najjar on the Miracle of Mountains in the Noble Quran.

    The mystery in Iron Miracle of the Quran.

  • Iron was sent down from space.

  •   
    1. Audio file.
    2. Video file 1.
    3. Video file 2.
        
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the History Channel.
      
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the Discovery Channel.
  •  

     

           

    The amazing creation of Earth and Iron:

    The sections of this article are:

    1-  The amazing creation of Earth and Iron.
          -  The Seven Layers of the earth's atmosphere.
          -   Iron was sent from Space.
    2-  Further proof from brother Hasan; may Allah Almighty always be pleased with him.
    3-  Articles and astronomical proofs that Iron came from space as the Noble Quran mentioned.
    4-  Rebuttals.
         -  "Heaven" and the "stars in the lower Heaven" in Noble Verses 37:6 and 65:12.


     

     

     

    While I was watching the "Al-Jazeera" Arabic news channel, I heard this new scientific discovery about the creation of earth and its relationship with iron.  The Muslim scientists found it to be absolutely amazing that Allah Almighty in the Noble Quran was exactly accurate in His description about how He created the earth and how He created the iron, and how this all was confirmed by the very letter in this new scientific discovery.

    First, let us examine the following Noble Verses from the Noble Quran:  "Allah is He Who Created seven firmaments and of the earth the same number.  Through the midst of them (all) descends His command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends all things In (His) Knowledge.  (The Noble Quran, 65:12)"

    "We sent aforetime Our messengers with clear signs and sent down them the Book and the Balance (of right and wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; and We sent down iron, in which is (material for) Mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, unseen, Him and His messengers: For Allah is Full of strength, exalted in Might (And able to enforce His Will).  (The Noble Quran, 57:25)"

    Regarding the iron Miracle, please visit:

  • Iron was sent down from space.

  •   
    1. Audio file.
    2. Video file 1.
    3. Video file 2.
        
  • Iron's atomic number is perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran.
      
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the History Channel:


      

  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the Discovery Channel.
      
  • The Earth "Sutihat" (formed after a splat, is pressed and expanded), and the Bulging Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.
  •   

    Surat al-Hadid is the 57th in the Qur’an. The numerical value of the word “al-Hadid” in Arabic is 57. The numerical value of “hadid” on its own is 26. As can be seen from the periodic table to the side, 26 is the number of the iron atom. With the verse revealed in Surat al-Hadid Almighty Allah indicates how iron formed, and with the mathematical code contained in the verse He reveals to us a scientific miracle.

    "Al- Hadid" is the 57th sura in the Qur'an. The abjad of the word "Al-Hadid" in Arabic, when the numerological values of its letters are added up, is also 57.

    (http://www.miraclesofthequran.com/scientific_30.html)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


    (http://www.miraclesofthequran.com/mathematical_02.html)

    The numerological value of the word "hadid" حديد alone is 26. And 26 is the atomic number of iron.

    ح is equal to 8.

    د is equal to 4.
     
    ي  is equal to 10.

    د is equal to 4.

    8 + 4 + 10 + 4 = 26
     

    The numerological value of the word "alhadid" الحديد alone is 57, and 57 is:

    1-  The number of Noble Surah's (Chapter), and the abjad numerical value of the Noble Surah's Name (Alhadid).

    2-  Makes the Noble Surah in the Middle of the Noble Quran, since the Noble Quran has 114 Noble Surahs.

    3-  The iron core is also in the center of planet earth.

    ا is equal to 1.

    ل is equal to 30.

    ح is equal to 8.

    د is equal to 4.
     
    ي  is equal to 10.

    د is equal to 4.

    1 + 30 + 8 + 4 + 10 + 4 = 57
     

     

    According to Noble Verse 65:12 above, Allah Almighty created 7 Heavens for form the universe.  The new scientific discovery had revealed to us that the earth that we currently live on today is also formed from seven layers.  The very bottom layer contains most of the uranium and potonium and all the materials that we need to create nuclear weapons and energy.  Noble Verse 65:12 above does indeed say that the earth was created with seven layers.

    The "...seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number..." means that GOD Almighty Created 7 different Heavens or Universes or Galaxies (name it as you wish), and 7 earths and seven properties for our earth (as it has been scientifically proven below with the 7 inner layers and 7 atmospheric layers), and most possibly 7 properties of the remaining 6 earths.  The "and of the earth a similar number" means that GOD Almighty Created the 7 earths with the same properties and qualities.   The number "seven" Sign in the Noble Quran is the Miraculous Sign for all of the Earths that GOD Almighty Created along with our Mother Earth.

    Please visit: UFOs and Space Shuttles were explicitly mentioned in the Noble Quran!

      

    The earth's seven inner layers:

      

      

      

    The Seven Layers of the earth's atmosphere:

    "Scientists have found that the atmosphere consists of several layers. The layers differ in such physical properties as pressure and the types of gasses. The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth is called the TROPOSPHERE. It contains about 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere. The layer above the troposphere is called the STRATOSPHERE. The OZONE LAYER is the part of the stratosphere where absorption of ultraviolet rays occurs. The layer above the stratosphere is called the MESOSPHERE. The THERMOSPHERE lies above the mesosphere. The ionized gases form a layer within the thermosphere called the IONOSPHERE. The outermost part of Earth's atmosphere extends from about 480 km out to 960 km. This part is called the EXOSPHERE. (Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; General Science, Allyn and Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, s. 319-322)"  

    http://www.creationofuniverse.com/html/science_07.html

      


    This picture was added on June 25th, 2007
    From
    Dr. Zaghloul Al-Naggar's Web Site


    (Click to enlarge)
    From
    Arizona State University


    See below

    While Scientists may have different names for some of the atmospheric layers of earth, but
    they agree on their functionality and number.

    (http://www.harunyahya.com/the_Quran_leads_the_way_to_science05.php)

      

      
    The full article with images and more scientific proofs is as follows:

    From http://www.creationofuniverse.com/html/science_07.html:

     

    THE LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE

     

    The Earth has all the attributes that are needed for life. One of them is the atmosphere, which serves as a shield protecting living things. Today, it is an established fact that the atmosphere is made up of different layers lying on top of one another. Just as it is described in the Qur'an, the atmosphere is made up of exactly seven layers. This is certainly one of the miracles of the Qur'an.

    One fact about the universe revealed in the verses of the Qur'an is that the sky is made up of seven layers.

    "It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and then directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things." (The Qur'an, 2:29)

    "Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke. In two days He determined them as seven heavens and revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate." (The Qur'an, 41:12)

    The word "heavens", which appears in many verses in the Qur'an, is used to refer to the sky above the Earth, as well as the entire universe. Given this meaning of the word, it is seen that the Earth's sky, or the atmosphere, is made up of seven layers.

    Indeed, today it is known that the world's atmosphere consists of different layers that lie on top of each other. Furthermore, it consists, just as is described in the Qur'an, of exactly seven layers. In a scientific source, the subject is described as follows:

    Scientists have found that the atmosphere consists of several layers. The layers differ in such physical properties as pressure and the types of gasses. The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth is called the TROPOSPHERE. It contains about 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere. The layer above the troposphere is called the STRATOSPHERE. The OZONE LAYER is the part of the stratosphere where absorption of ultraviolet rays occurs. The layer above the stratosphere is called the MESOSPHERE. The THERMOSPHERE lies above the mesosphere. The ionized gases form a layer within the thermosphere called the IONOSPHERE. The outermost part of Earth's atmosphere extends from about 480 km out to 960 km. This part is called the EXOSPHERE. (Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; General Science, Allyn and Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, s. 319-322)

    If we count the number of layers cited in this source, we see that the atmosphere consists of exactly seven layers, just as stated in the verse.

    1. Troposphere

    2. Stratosphere

    3. Ozonosphere

    4. Mesosphere

    5. Thermosphere

    6. Ionosphere

    7. Exosphere

    Another important miracle on this subject is mentioned in the statement "(He) revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate.", in verse 12 of Sura Fussilet. In other words, in the verse, God states that He assigned each heaven its own duty. Truly, as seen in previous chapters, each one of these layers has vital duties for the benefit of human kind and all other living things on the Earth. Each layer has a particular function, ranging from forming rain to preventing harmful rays, from reflecting radio waves, to averting the harmful effects of meteors.

    One of these functions, for example, is stated in a scientific source as follows:

    Earth's atmosphere has 7 layers. The lowest layer is called troposphere. Rain, snow and wind only take place in the troposphere. (http://muttley.ucdavis.edu/Book/Atmosphere/beginner/layers-01.html).....site had moved to (http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Atmosphere/beginner/layers-01.html)

    It is a great miracle that these facts, which could not possibly be discovered without the technology of the 20th century, were explicitly stated by the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.

    14 centuries ago, when the sky was believed to be one unified body, the Qur'an miraculously stated that it consisted of layers, and what is more, "seven" layers. Modern science, on the other hand, discovered the fact that the atmosphere surrounding the Earth is made up of "seven" basic layers only very recently.


    This picture was added on June 25th, 2007


    From Arizona State University

    Again, while Scientists may have different names for some of the atmospheric layers of earth, but
    they agree on their functionality and number.


    (http://www.harunyahya.com/the_Quran_leads_the_way_to_science05.php)

      

    Also, the following is an email I received from an non-Muslim woman; may Allah Almighty bless her by leading her to Islam more and more.  Ameen.

    From: deonnia@telkom.net 
    Reply-to: dennik@softhome.net 
    To: truthspeaks@answering-christianity.com
    Subj: http://www.answering-christianity.com/earth.htm
    Date: 9/26/2003 1:15:27 PM Central Standard Time

    The Seven "Heavens" refers to the layers of our atmosphere.
    troposphere
    stratosphere
    ozone layer
    mesosphere
    thermosphere
    ionosphere
    exosphere

    The Seven "Earths" refer to the layers that literally make up the Earth
    crust
    lithosphere
    upper mantle
    astenoshpere
    lower mantle
    outer core
    inner core

    OR they could refer to the "7 Continents" (in the context that "al-ard" means ground)
    North America
    South America
    Australia
    Asia
    Africa
    Antarctica
    Europe

    source :
    http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/8172311613/ref=pd_sim_books_1/t/103-5743194-0757406?v=glance&s=books

     

    Please visit: Allah Almighty said that the earth is "egg-shaped".

    The Earth is round according to Islam.

    The amazing creation of earth and mountains in the Noble Quran.

    Geology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.

    Oceanology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.


    The new scientific discovery had also revealed that the metal iron was not created or formed from earth or earth material at all!  Iron was sent by burning stars traveling through space that had collided with earth !.  When those stars collided with earth and their melted metals cooled down and changed from liquid burned/melted metals to hard solid metals, they formed the metal of what we call today iron.

     

    Iron was sent from Space:

    Also, notice that the in Noble Verse 57:25 above, Allah Almighty says clearly "We sent down iron...." and He didn't say "We created iron from earth...."  Allah Almighty's claim was very accurate and precise.  "We sent down iron....." clearly states that iron was created outside the earth and was brought down by the Will of Allah Almighty for a purpose, and that is "(material for) Mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, unseen, Him and His messengers: For Allah is Full of strength, exalted in Might (And able to enforce His Will).  (The Noble Quran, 57:25)"

    Allah Almighty did mention in the Noble Quran that He sent His book (The Noble Quran) as guidance, light, power, truth and wisdom for those who seek knowledge and truth; see Noble Verses 2:2, 2:259, 42:52, 16:89, 27:76-77, 17:105, 32:3, 34:6, 35:31, 39:2, 39:41, 42:17, 57:16 and many other verses.



    Outside Supporting articles:

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron.htm   This article shows the Mathematical Codes of Iron in the Noble Quran and Science, and shows how Science confirmed Allah Almighty's Divine Claim in Noble Verses 17:49-50 about the dead converting into rocks and iron.   In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron2.htm   More elaborations on Noble Verses 17:49-51.  In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.


    Further proofs from brother Hasan; may Allah Almighty always be pleased with him:

    As'salamu Alaikum brother Osama

    I thought that you could benefit from the following:

    In surat al7adid Allah Almighty mentions the word iron (al7adid) in the verse 25 and this sura's number is 57..if you summed these number up you will have 82 which is the same result that you would get from summing up iron's atomic number 26 and it mass number (55.845 approximately 56).  The word al7adid appears in the verse 25 approximately in the middle of that verse.  If you divided 24.5/29(the number of verses in that surah) you will get 0.844827586207 which agrees with the recently discovered iron's mass number up to three significant digits ! can this be just a couensedense or its another sign of a miracle?

    .........

    One other thing: if you didn't do that i suggest that you visit islamway web site www.islamway.com and listen to lectures given by Dr.Tariq Swedan about the miracles of the quran .. you might find some really useful things from there...

    Bye and take care. Assalamualikum

     

    Articles and astronomical proofs that Iron came from space as the Noble Quran mentioned:

    First Article:

    The following article was taken from http://ca.geocities.com/spacephysicsisu/meteoroid.html.   It talks about iron and "stony irons" originating from space:

    Meteroid Topics covered on this page:

     

     

    What are Meteoroids, Meteors and Meteorites?

    There are three stages to the phenomenon regarding meteors. In the majority of the cases, an object will only make it to the second stage. Here are the stages:

    Meteoroid: A piece of debris that is traveling through space towards our planet.

    Meteor: A brief flash of light that we see at night which is not caused by the material "burning" with friction from the atmosphere, but instead, from the excited atoms caused by the object's high speed.

    Meteorite: A small number of objects that are not entirely destroyed in the upper atmosphere and arrives at the ground.

    Great balls of fire!

    House Pieces of material which cause meteors to enter Earth's upper atmosphere at very high velocity: around 260000km/h. The flash of light that we see happens when the object is around 100 km above the surface of the Earth. If the object were to be the size of a grape, than it would create a brilliant flash that could even cast shadows on the ground. Such bright meteors are called FIREBALLS. The image here shows a fireball.

    The origins of meteor showers

    Many more meteors can be seen at night during a certain time of the year. The reasons behind this are comets.

    A falling star As a comet orbits near the Sun, it loses materials, such as dust and rocks, which are given out by the tail. These materials cause a continuous trail to form behind the comet as it orbits. When the Earth crosses the path which a trail once was, the particles of materials that they contain are taken up by Earth's atmosphere. These appear in the sky as a shower of meteors. The dates of these meteor showers are known. For example: The Eta Aquarid shower (around May 4th) and the Orionid shower (October 20th) are both cause by the trail left by Halley's comet.

    Return to top

    All about meteorites...

    The vast majority of the meteors are from comet trails, however, these particles are usually too small to survive the trip to the Earth since they burn up too quickly. On the other hand, much larger chunks do survive. These meteorites are from a different source though. Rather than a result from the trail left by a comet, meteorites are originated from asteroids. When colliding with another asteroid, pieces or chunks will break off, and in other cases, the entire asteroid might even be shattered. The result is a cloud of RUBBLE, which are large pieces of rock and metals from the original asteroid that wander into the path of the Earth and fall through the Earth's atmosphere.

    The resulting meteor is incredibly bright and could even cast strong shadows. Even though a whole lot of the meteor is burned off, some may still survive, and the resulting meteorite gives plenty of information about an asteroid's composition and even that of the early solar system.

    This meteorite fell on Earth on August 14th, 1992 in Uganda. The meteorite was made of stone, which broke down along its fall causing debris to be distributed over an area of 3 x 7 km. At least 48 fragments have been found, and it is thought that the original object might have been 1000 kg. The largest piece recovered is shown in the picture.

    Even though most meteorites come from asteroids, there are some that are thought to have come from comets, and other that have a composition, which is relatively close to the rocks found on the Moon. At least 7 other meteorites are of a type that match closely to the materials found on Mars, which suggests that there was probably an impact on the surface of Mars. A Martian meteorite is shown here.

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    Composition

    Meteorites are generally divided into three classes according to their composition:

     

    Return to top

    Impacts on Earth

    Property Damage We are very lucky today that the majority of debris, which enters Earth from space, is small in size. However, a small fraction of the pieces do survive the journey. These are meteorites, as we have discussed in the previous section. Meteorites usually cause not too severe damage than a hole in a house roof or a small crater in the ground.


    Earthly impacts On the other hand, things were not always this fortunate. During the past, Earth has been hit by much larger objects, which have left scars on the surface. For example, some scientists believe that the disappearance of the Dinosaurs about 65 million years ago was caused by the impact of a large asteroid in an area now covered by the Indian Ocean. Some also believe that a huge body (possibly the size of a planet) caused a large piece to fracture off our planet and form the Moon, which we see today. Here are several impact sites on Earth that we have been able to identify.

     

    Here are some famous craters from around the world:

    Arizona Barringer, Arizona, USA.

    Barringer is 1.2 km across, and is about 49,000 years old. It is possibly the most famous terrestrial impact crater,



    Australia Wolfe Creek, Western Australia.

    This crater is less than 0.3 million years old and has a diameter of 0.9 km.

     

     


    Second Article:

    This article was taken from http://spacelink.nasa.gov/Instructional.Materials/Curriculum.Support/Space.Science/Our.Solar.System/Small.Bodies/Comets.Asteroids.and.Meteoroids

     

    Comets Asteroids and Meteoroids

    Some Facts about COMETS
    1. Comets are usually named after their discoverers.
    2. Comets are wanderers who visit our solar system.
    3. Their home ground is the Oort Cloud Region
    (9,300,000,000 miles from the sun).
    4. In ancient times it was believed that comets were the souls of
    heroes or kings on their way to heaven, or messengers of
    disasters, etc.
    5. Comets may be the left over rock dust and icy matter from the
    formation of the solar system.
    6. Some comets are sun-grazing (sweep close to the sun).
    7. Comet Kohoutex was seen in 1974. It may not be back for a
    million years or more.

    TABLE OF RETURNING COMETS

    COMET PERIOD SEEN RETURNED
    Encke 3.3 years 1980 Always within range of telescope
    Tempel 2 5.3 years 1978 1983
    Holmes 7.1 years 1979 1986
    Faye 7.4 years 1977 1984
    Halley 76 years 1910 1986

    Some Facts about ASTEROIDS
    1. An asteroid is a rocky object, smaller than a planet, that orbits
    the sun.
    2. Asteroids orbit the sun between the planets Mars and Jupiter.
    3. During the early age of our solar system thousands of asteroids
    crashed into Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Jupiter.
    4. There are tens of thousands of asteroids in the asteroid belt
    region.
    5. Ceres, discovered in 1801, is the largest asteroid known to man.
    6. All asteroids lumped together would be smaller than Earth's moon.
    7. Pioneer 10 is the first man-made spacecraft to travel through the
    Asteroid Belt.
    8. Small chunks are called meteoroids.

    METEOROIDS, METEORS, METEORITES

    If you have gazed at the night sky for any length of time you have no
    doubt seen "falling stars", "shooting stars" or meteors. These are
    bits of material which have been heated to incandescence by the
    friction of the air. Those pieces which are sufficiently large to not
    vaporize completely and reach the surface of the Earth are termed
    meteorites. The incandescent trails as they are coming through the
    Earth's atmosphere are termed meteors, and these chunks as they are
    hurtling through space are called meteoroids.

    Meteorites may look very much like Earth rocks, or they may have a
    burned appearance. They may be dense metallic chunks or more rocky.
    Some may have thumbprint-like depressions, roughened or smooth
    exteriors.

    Upon closer examination most meteoritic samples fall into
    predominately nickel-iron alloy called siderites or more commonly iron
    meteorites; the predominately rocky-silicates called aerolites or
    stony meteorites. In between these extremes are those which are
    generally an even mixture of silicate minerals and nickel-iron alloy
    which are called siderolites, or stony-iron meteorites. There are
    other sub-classes which will be discussed later.

    Meteoritic samples vary from tiny dust grains to giant boulders having
    masses of several thousand kilograms. It is difficult to distinguish
    meteorites from terrestrial rocks for the samples found on the ground
    i. e. "finds". Generally, the finds are of the iron variety because
    they do appear different. However, many meteorites have been seen to
    fall, thus the "falls" are excellent sources of meteoritic samples (of
    course, it takes two simultaneous viewings from different points to
    pinpoint the location of the fall).

    Estimates indicate that perhaps as little as 1,000 to more than 10,000
    tons of meteoritic material falls on the Earth each day. However, most
    of this material is very tiny -- in the form of micrometeoroids or
    dust-like grains a few micrometers in size. (These particles are so
    tiny that the air resistance is enough to slow them sufficiently that
    they do not burn up, but rather fall gently to Earth.

    Analysis of ocean sediments show the presence of large quantities of
    micro-meteorites. Considering the proportion of ocean to land, the
    majority of meteorites should fall into the water.

    Meteorites vary in size from micrometer size grains to large
    individual boulders.

    The largest individual iron is the Hoba meteorite from southwest
    Africa which has a mass of about 54,000 kg.

    The stones are much smaller, the largest falling in Norton County,
    Kansas having a mass of about 1,000 kg.

    Considering the vast infall of meteorites, one cannot help but wonder
    if anyone has been hurt or killed by meteorites. There are only two
    documented cases on record. The only incident of a fatality was a
    shower of stones which fell upon Nakhla, near Alexandria, Egypt on
    June 28, l911. One of these stones killed a dog. On November 30, 1954,
    Mrs. Hewlett Hodges of Sylacauga, Alabama was severely bruised by an 8
    pound stony meteorite that crashed through her roof. This is the first
    known human injury.

    If one compares a sampling of meteorites discovered as "falls" or
    "finds", one notices a discrepancy.

    *FINDS % FALLS %
    Irons 409 66.0 29 5.0
    Stony-Iron 46 7.5 8 1.5
    Stony 165 26.0 547 93.5
    (*From Watson, Fletcher G. (1956) BETWEEN THE PLANETS, Harvard
    University Press. Although this is an old reference, the proportions
    remain about the same today.)

    Why the difference? For the finds the iron meteorites are visibly
    different in mass (density) and appearance from the surrounding
    terrestrial rocks. The stony meteorites are very similar to the Earth
    rocks -- the major difference being perhaps a charred or melted
    appearance on the surface. Thus the proportion of meteorite types for
    the falls is perhaps a more valid proportion -- a preponderance of
    stones, a very tiny amount of stony-iron and modest amount of irons.
    What does this mean? Where do they come from? Calculations indicate
    that near the Earth meteoroids have speeds in the range of 65 km/sec.
    The Earth's orbital speed of 30 km/sec means that they could have a
    relative speed between 30 and 95 km/sec. Although these speeds are not
    high enough to suggest interstellar origin, another fact is that plots
    show their trajectories to be elliptical and not hyperbolic, thus they
    must come from within our own solar system. Perhaps they share a
    common origin with the asteroids. The relative composition of the
    meteoroids provides a clue for a hypothesis that they or some
    originated from a planet (or planet like) body which exploded at some
    time in the distant past.

    The composition of stony meteorites is so similar to the Earth that it
    does suggest a rocky mantle. The iron is similar to what we believe
    the Earth's core is like. Thus, in 1943 R. A. Daly (in Meteorites and
    an Earth Model, Bull. Geol. Soc. of Amer. 54,401-456) proposed the
    following hypothesis for the ancestral body for the meteorites:
    1. It had an iron (nickel-iron) core and a stony mantle.
    2. The volume of the core is much less than the mantle. The planet
    must have been relatively small.
    3. The force of gravity on this celestial body was much less than
    that of the Earth.
    What evidence do we have to support this hypothesis?
    1. We find both iron and stony meteorites.
    2. There is a much larger proportion of stony to iron meteorites.
    3. The presence of stony-iron meteorites shows a mixing of types.

    We shall return to meteoritic origin later.

    Looking out at the night sky one can generally see several "shooting
    stars" or meteors per hour. The incandescent light comes from the
    resistance of the air, rapidly heating the meteoroid as well as
    ionizing the surrounding air. Thus we see a trail of light falling
    toward Earth. Usually the meteoroid is completely vaporized, in a
    second or less, but the larger meteors may have trails several
    kilometers long and last sufficiently for remnants to be found, i.e.
    meteorite falls. Some of the meteors are so bright that enough light
    is emitted to cast shadows. These are called fire balls (some can even
    be seen during day light.)

    The rate at which meteors appear is not constant and varies with the
    time of the year as well as time during the night. Sometimes during
    the year the number of meteors seen increases dramatically, these are
    termed "meteor showers". In fact some meteor showers occur annually or
    at rather regular intervals.

    The number is greater in autumn and winter. The number always
    increases after midnight and is usually greatest just before dawn.
    This is understandable when one considers the motion of the Earth. The
    Earth is heading more into its orbital path, also the night side of
    the Earth is turning toward this direction.

    When a meteor shower occurs, they appear to emanate or radiate from a
    point called the radiant. These meteor showers may vary in the number
    of meteors but regularly occur annually, and last for a few days.
    Perhaps the most famous are the Perseids which have maximum about
    August 12 but begin to occur about July 25 and last until about August
    18, which is much longer than most.

    Meteor showers are usually named after a star or constellation which
    is close to the radiant.

    Many of the meteor showers are associated with comets. This deduction
    is because the more spectacular displays are coincident with the
    period of the comet -- as well as spectrographic data matter from the
    comet is spread out along its orbit, thus when the Earth's orbital
    path intersects the orbital path of the comet, a meteor shower occurs.
    Occasionally this occurs twice annually. Often the material is
    unevenly distributed which accounts for the variation of intensity.

    The leonids are associated with comet Tempel-Tuttle; Aquarids and
    Orionids with Halley and the Taurids with Encke.

    The majority of meteors burn up before reaching the Earth's surface,
    however, examination of some meteorites indicates a loose structure or
    vapor grown crystal aggregates which indicate a fluffy nature. This
    gives rise to theories that some meteoroid material was aggregated,
    some subjected to heating-vaporization-condensation. This contrasts
    with the idea that meteoroids originated from an exploded planet or
    planetoid or asteroid.

    Thus many meteoroids break apart in the upper atmosphere, and become
    "fluffy meteors". These are some of the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle.

    Other than spectrographic analysis of the light of the meteoric
    trails, the only chemical evidence lies in those extant samples; the
    meteorites.

    The mineral content is on the whole similar to Earth, however, there
    are some particular minerals which are unique to the meteorites.

    DATES OF MAJOR METEOR SHOWERS

    NUMBER
    DATE OF APPROXIMATE PER HOUR
    NAME MAXIMUM LIMITS AT MAXIMUM

    Quadrantids Jan 4 Jan 1-6 110
    Lyrids Apr 22 Apr 19-24 12
    Eta Aquarids May 5 May 1-8 20
    Delta Aquarids Jul 27-28 Jul 15-Aug 15 35
    Perseids Aug 12 Jul 25-Aug 18 68
    Orionids Oct 21 Oct 16-26 30
    Taurids Nov 8 Oct 20-Nov 30 12
    Leonids Nov 17 Nov 15-19 10
    Geminids Dec 14 Dec 7-15 58


    METEORITES
    Meteorites generally fall into three major classes, the iron, which
    are primarily iron and nickel at one end of the scale, and the stones
    which are primarily silicates at the other, with the stony-irons
    consisting of an even mixture of silicate and nickel-iron.

    IRON
    The IRON or SIDERITES consist generally of 98% nickel-iron (the
    mineral name being plessite). The nickel-iron generally exists in two
    forms, the kamacite, which is a low nickel (4-7%) and the high nickel
    content taenite (30-60% nickel). Some cobalt is also usually present.
    These two minerals are not present on the surface of the Earth. Along
    with the metal, the accessory minerals generally consist of
    schreibersite with some troilite, cohenite and graphite. Also
    occasionally some daubreelite, although it is rather rare.

    STONY-IRON
    The STONY-IRON, either PALLISITES or MESOSIDERITES, generally are a
    fairly even mixture of nickel-iron in an open sponge-like matrix with
    the silicate minerals consisting of small rounded grains or bodies.
    The composition of the stony-iron meteorites is about 50% nickel-iron
    and 50% of the silicates olivine or pyroxene with occasional troilite
    (ferrous sulfide).

    STONY
    The STONY or AEROLITES may be classified into two or three
    subdivisions. These are the CHONDRITES, ACHONDRITES, and CARBONACEOUS
    CHONDRITES.

    CHONDRITES are silicate meteorites having chondri or small rounded
    bodies of olivine or pyroxene. About 90% of the stony meteorites are
    chondrites. Chondrites generally consist of 46% olivine, 25% pyroxene,
    11% plagioclase and about 12% nickel-iron.

    ACHONDRITES are those stony meteorites not having chondri. Only about
    10% of the stones are achondrites. Achondrites generally consist of
    72% pyroxene, 25% plagioclase, 9% olivine, and only about 1%
    nickel-iron.

    CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES are a fairly rare meteorite, having organic
    molecules, water, the mineral serpentine, and usually having chondri.

    Meteorites vary in size from small grains to large chunks of several
    thousand pounds. The iron meteorites or siderites generally consist of
    98% of a nickel-iron alloy called plessite. Due to physical processes
    of melting and recrystallizing the nickel-iron can be separated into
    two types, nickle rich (30-60% Ni) taenite and low nickel (4-7%)
    kamacite. These separate into laminar or layered bands which are not
    visible even in a polished section. However, if the polished section
    is etched slightly with acid, the layers, called the Widmanstatten
    pattern, becomes visible.

    Although nickel-iron is found on the Earth, the particular minerals
    kamacite and taenite are so far only found in meteorites. Usually some
    cobalt is also present (less than one percent).

    Along with the metals, the accessory minerals (about 2%) generally
    consist of schreibersite (an iron nickel phosphide;) with some
    troilite (a ferrous sulfide; FeS) cohenite,an iron-nickel carbide; and
    graphite (carbon/C). Also occasionally some daubreelite (an iron
    chromium sulfide); although it is rather rare and not found in
    terrestrial rocks.

    The iron meteorites can be divided into four basic groups. The
    hexahedrites have a nickel content less than 7%. The accessory mineral
    is generally only troilite. The hexahedrite nickel-iron is only the
    kamacite variety.

    The octahedrites having an overall nickel content between 6.5 and 18%.
    The octahedral crystal structure (confirmed by x-ray analysis) may be
    coarse, medium or fine grained. The octahedrites which are far more
    prevalent contain both kamacite and taenite. The accessory minerals
    are usually troilite and graphite.

    The nickel-rich axtites have a nickel content generally between 12 and
    25% but sometimes greater. these contain modular or laminar inclusions
    of graphite, schreibersite, cohenite and troilite. The nickel-iron
    present is only taenite.

    The final and unusual group may be referred to as
    irons-with-silicate-inclusions (IWSI) in which about one-fourth of the
    volume (still only a few percent of the mass) is made up of irregular
    masses of silicates such as olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene along with
    graphite, troilite and schreibersite.

    The stony-iron, siderolites, or pallisites or mesodiderites generally
    lie intermediate between the stones and irons with a 50-50 mixture of
    nickel-iron alloy and silicate minerals.

    Generally the silicate minerals exist as small rounded bodies or
    grains in a sponge-like matrix of the alloy. The minerals are
    generally olivine or pyroxene with occasional troilite.

    The stony-irons generally fall into two groups:
    1. The pallisites which have the silicate (predominately olivine)
    in a continuous matrix of nickel-iron.
    2. The mesosiderites which have pyroxene and troilite along with the
    olivine in a discontinuous matrix of metal.

    The stony or aerolites are predominately silicate minerals with small
    amounts of nickel-iron alloy. They may be classed several ways, the
    major division being the presence or absence of small rounded bodies
    of silicates called chondri or chondrules. Thus those which have these
    chondrules are called chondrites, those which do not are achondrites.
    The vast majority (or about 90%) of stony meteorites are chondrites.

    These may be classified and sub-classified as follows:
    The chondrites, or ordinary chondrites consist generally of 46%
    olivine, 25% pyroxene, 11% plagioclase and about 12% nickel-iron with
    traces of troilite and chromite. However the specific analysis may
    provide further subdivisions based upon the specific amount of metal
    (i.e H=High, L=Low and LL=Very Low.)

    In the ordinary chondrites, the iron classification difference lies in
    the relative total iron content, and iron present in the metal. The
    amount of iron in the silicates olivine and pyroxene run counter to
    this.

    Iron Total Iron in Iron in Iron in
    Classification Iron Metal Olivine Pyroxene

    High H type 27% 16% 13% 8%
    Low L type 22% 6% 17% 10%
    Very Low LL type 21% 2% 20% 12%
    (These percentages are averages.)

    The texture and crystal structure (degree of metamorphism) are given
    number 3 for the least metamorphosed to 6 for the most highly
    metamorphosed.

    The extraordinary or unusual chondrites are the enstatite chondrites
    and the carbonaceous chondrites.

    The Enstatite chondrites consist of minerals in a highly reduced state
    including the minerals - enstatite (a variety of orthorhombic
    pyroxene), plagiocalse and troilite and sinoite, oldhamite (CaS),
    osbornite (TiN) and others. Enstatite chondrites cannot conveniently
    be classified by iron content.

    The carbonaceous chondrites, a fairly rare type, have little or no
    free metal, contain some iron compounds but contain serpentine,
    organic compounds and water of hydration. The carbon and water are
    used to sub-classify the carbonaceous chondrites. Those having the
    most water and carbon (water about 20.1%, C about 3.5%) are termed C1
    or type I. They also contain magnetite and ferric chamosite.

    Those having an intermediate amount of water and carbon (water =
    13.4%, C = 2.5%) are termed C3 or Type II. They also contain larger
    amounts of olivine and troilite along with some enstatite and ferric
    chamosite.

    Those carbonaceous chondrites having the least amount of carbon and
    water (water = 1.0%, C = 0.5%) are termed C3 or type III. They contain
    olivine, enstatite, troilite, pentlandlite but no ferric chamosite.

    The type I carbonaceous chondrites do not, as a rule, contain
    chondrules, but are classified as chondrites because of their chemical
    composition and similarity to type II and III.

    The achondrites are comparatively rare and are more similar in texture
    to the lunar and terrestrial igneous rocks.

    Out of a sample of 2,000 meteorites reported, only 64 are achondrites.
    They fall into two major categories, the low calcium or calcium poor
    variety and the high calcium or calcium rich variety. However they
    possess such a diversity that they fall into eight distinct classes.
    The classification names are either name of the predominate mineral or
    the location name of examples.

    The Calcium Poor Achondrites:
    Aubrite/Enstatite achondrites. Primarily enstatite, a magnesium
    silicate, variety of orthorhombic pyroxene, 9 examples are known.

    Diogenite/Hypersthene or Bronzite achondrites. Primarily the variety
    of orthorhombic pyroxene; hypersthene, an iron magnesium silicate,
    8 examples are known.

    Chassignite/Olivine achondrites. Primarily olivine. An iron
    magnesium silicate, one example is known.

    Urelite/Olivine-Pigeonite achondrites. Primarily olivine, and a
    monoclinic variety of pyroxene; pigeonite, with some nickel-iron
    and carbon. This is the only variety of meteorites in which
    diamonds have been found, 3 examples are known.

    The Calcium Rich Achondrites:
    Eucrites and Howardites/Basaltic achondrites or
    orthopyroxene-pigeonite-plagioclase achondrites and pigeonite
    plagioclase achondrites. These are made up of monoclinic and
    orthorhombic pyroxenes and plagioclase. Over 40 specimens fall
    into this category

    Nakhlite/Diopside achondrites. These are predominately monoclinic
    pyroxenes, especially diopside, with some olivine, 2 known
    specimens.

    Angrite/Augite. This variety is primarily monoclinic pyroxene
    augite, one specimen is known.

    There is another variety of object of suspected extra-terrestrial
    origin which does not fit into the classification scheme of
    meteorites. These are the tektites.

    Tektites are a separate class of silica-rich glass which resemble
    obsidian but are quite distinct from any terrestrial obsidian. As yet
    none have been observed to fall, thus there is some dispute as to
    their origin, whether meteoric, volcanic, or cosmic. While meteorites
    are found widely distributed over the entire earth, tektites have only
    been found in widely scattered locations.

    Their size is generally under 200 grams, are rounded masses and have
    been found in regions which rule out volcanic origins. They may be
    fragments of a thin glassy surface of a comet or perhaps the result of
    condensation of cometary material. One theory indicates lunar origin
    as they resemble some of the lunar glass -- although the tektites are
    much larger.

    Thus we see that some material is similar to the Earth and moon and
    some is quite different. Some evidence indicates cometary origin. To
    accept a planetary explosion origin, one needs to consider that impact
    upon a body of diameter greater than 1,000 km will probably not result
    in an explosion or fragmentation.

    Thus, perhaps some meteoroids have their origin with the asteroids,
    some with comets, and some....?

    The book is not closed. There is a great deal of careful study and
    experimentation left to be accomplished.

    Prepared by: Dr. Harry B. Herzer, III
    NASA Aerospace Education Services Project
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma

    Third Article:

    This article was taken from http://www.crystalinks.com/meteors.html

    METEORS - METEORITES

    Meteoroids are little bits of dust and stone that float around the solar system waiting to strike an atmosphere and burn. Meteors are those bits that hit the Earth's atmosphere and burn away leaving a short fiery tail. Meteorites are those bits of rock, often of asteroid origin, which are large enough to penetrate the atmosphere and hit the Earth's surface. It has been calculated that many tons of meteor dust hit the Earth's atmosphere every day without ever reaching the ground.

    Meteors were originally thought to be part of the atmosphere, like lightening. This is why the word originates from the same Greek root as meteorology; the study of parts of the atmosphere. It has been recorded for millennia that meteors are often seen as a shower. On certain days of the year many brilliant streaks can be seen every hour.

    More than 2000 meteorites have been recovered. They are of different types, Stony meteorites, iron meteorites and the rare carbonaceous chondrites. The largest meteorite that has been found is the 60 tonne Hoba iron meteorite; the largest stony meteorite weighs about a tonne and the Allende carbonaceous chondrite was a series of chunks that totalled about 5 tonnes.

    Impact craters are known on the Earth that correspond to bodies far larger than these. One of the best known is the Arizona crater in the USA which is 1280 metres across and 180 metres deep. It was formed several thousand years ago by a 250,000 tonne meteorite with a diameter of 70 metres hitting the Earth at a speed of nearly 60,000 km/h.

    Meteor Streams.

    Many meteors originated in material stripped off from comets by radiation from the Sun. This material continues to follow the orbit of the originating comet but gets spread out along the orbit. If the path of the Earth passes through this stream of particles then we will see many meteors whose paths in the sky will appear to radiate from one point in the sky (the radiant) which is in the direction from which the stream is coming. Many such meteor showers are seen throughout the year. Some are associated with known comets while others are remnants of comets that are unknown. Most showers produce about 20, or so, meteors per hour but there are showers which can produce thousands of meteors over a period of less than an hour. Such shows are, unfortunately, very rare. Meteor showers are named after the constellation from which they appear to radiate. A list of prominent showers is given below.

    Sporadic Meteors.

    Meteors may be seen on any night of the year when the Moon is not bright. If no prominent shower is active then most of the meteors that are seen will come from random directions in space and will thus show no tendency to radiate from any part of the sky. These meteors are called sporadic meteors and about 7 per hour is the normal rate for them to be seen. Most fire-balls and meteorites are sporadic meteors. The material in these meteors is associated with the material in the asteroids and it is likely that they represent material that has come from fragmented asteroids. Some rarer types of meteoric matter are believed to have originated on the Moon and on Mars, probably as a result of matter being exploded from the surface by the impact of a large meteorite.

     


    THE PATH OF A METEOR

    Entry into the atmosphere:

    When they hit the atmosphere, meteors rub against air particles and create friction, heating the meteors to more than 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat vaporizes most meteors, creating what we call shooting stars (most become visible at around 60 miles up). Some large meteors splatter, causing a brighter flash called a fireball, which can often be heard up to 30 miles away. When meteors hit the ground, they're called meteorites. Some meteors are bits broken off asteroids, others -- mere cosmic dust -- are cast off by comets. (And one more term: A meteoroid is an object in space that may, if it enters our atmosphere, become a meteor.)



    Meteor breakup:

    Whether an object breaks apart depends on its composition, speed, and angle of entry. A faster meteor at an oblique angle suffers greater stress. Meteors made of iron withstand the stress better than those of stone. Even an iron meteor will usually break up as the atmosphere becomes more dense, around 5 to 7 miles up. A meteor sometimes explodes above the surface, causing widespread damage from the blast and ensuing fire. This happened in 1908 over over Siberia.



    Impact with Earth:

    Extraterrestrial objects that hit the ground, their speed roughly half what it was upon entry, blast out craters 12 to 20 times their size. Craters on Earth form much as they would on the moon or any rocky planet. Smaller objects create simple, bowl-shaped craters. Larger impacts cause a rebound that creates a central peak; slipping along the rim forms terraces. The largest impacts form basins in which multiple rebounds form several inner peaks.

     


    TYPES OF METEORITES

     

    Meteorite Types
    Iron primarily iron and nickel;
    similar to type M asteroids
    Stony Iron mixtures of iron and stony material like type S asteroids
    Chondrite by far the largest number of meteorites fall into this class;
    similar in composition to the mantles and crusts of the terrestrial planets
    Carbonaceous Chondrite very similar in composition to the Sun less volatiles;
    similar to type C asteroids
    Achondrite similar to terrestrial basalts;
    the meteorites believed to have originated on the Moon and Mars are achondrites

    "Fall" means the meteorite was witnessed by someone as it fell from the sky. A "find" means the meteorite was not witnessed and the meteorite was found after the fact. About 33% of the meteorites are witnessed falls.

     

     

    Rebuttals:

    My response to Shahid bin waheed's rebuttal to my "The amazing creation of Earth and Iron" article.



    Rebuttal to points some critics had raised:

    "Heaven" in Noble Verses 37:6 and 65:12:

    Is the word "heaven" in the two Noble Verses the same?  Some critics tried to refute the fact that the Noble Quran mentioned 7 Ozone layers and Seven different Heavens.  Here is a quote from an email that I received:

    "you have another serious scientific problem. You claim that the seven layers of the atmosphere refer to the seven heavens. Read the Quran ! It explicitly states that the stars are fixed on the lowest layer. Now imagine what happens if a star is in the troposphere. Is there one ? No. With this "proof" you don't prove anything. It introduces even more contradictions."


    Let us look at what Allah Almighty Said in the two Noble Verses:

    "We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars,-  (The Noble Quran, 37:6)"

    "God is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that God has power over all things, and that God comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge.  (The Noble Quran, 65:12)"


    As clearly proven above in the article, the "...seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number..." means that GOD Almighty Created 7 different Heavens or Universes or Galaxies (name it as you wish), and 7 earths and seven properties for our earth (as it has been scientifically proven with the 7 inner layers and 7 atmospheric layers), and most possibly 7 properties of the remaining 6 earths.  The "and of the earth a similar number" means that GOD Almighty Created the 7 earths with the same properties and qualities.   The number "seven" Sign in the Noble Quran is the Miraculous Sign for all of the Earths that GOD Almighty Created along with our Mother Earth.

    The two Noble Verses that the critics usually raise are separate, because the word "heaven" DOES perfectly mean either atmosphere or space (the outer space outside our earth's ozone layer) IN ARABIC.  The Noble Word "Samawat" (heavens) means different things throughout the Noble Quran.

    As Allah Almighty Created 7 Ozone Layers and 7 different Heavens, it is quite possible that He made the number 7 be a MIRACULOUS SIGN for all the earths and Heavens that He Created.  Meaning, seven earths, seven heavens each containing one earth, and each earth's atmosphere is divided into 7 layers, and each earth has 7 CONTINENTS, and seven inner layers.

    Allah Almighty Said that He Created other creatures throughout the "Heavens":

    From www.answering-christianity.com/ufo.htm:

    "And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the living creatures that He has scattered through them: and He has power to gather them together when He wills.  (The Noble Quran, 42:29)"

    This Noble Verse was forwarded to me by brother Frank (www.why-christians-convert-to-islam.com), who have embraced Islam; may Allah Almighty always be pleased with him.

    As we see, "through them" includes the living creatures in both the Universe (heavens) and the earth.  Please visit: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/7906/ for more details and proofs.  This link too was forwarded to me by brother Frank.

    Also, "gather them together when He wills" seems to suggest that Allah Almighty would allow communication, finding and meeting with those scattered creations in the Universe (UFOs in other words) when "He wills".


    To see all of the Noble Verses that clearly prove that UFOs do exist in the Noble Quran, please visit: www.answering-christianity.com/ufo.htm.

      

      

      

      

      

    Back to Science in the Noble Quran and Islam.

    Iron is beneficial to the vision and eyesight - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!

    The Earth "Sutihat" (formed after a splat, is pressed and expanded), and the Bulging Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

    Was Adam 90 feet tall?  See how Science suggests that Prophet Muhammad's Hadith is Scientifically True.

    Living Creatures were sent down from space. Science confirms the Noble Quran's Claim.

    Allah Almighty said that the earth is "egg-shaped".

    The Earth is round according to Islam.

    The amazing creation of earth and mountains in the Noble Quran.

    Geology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.

    Oceanology in the Noble Quran - See the Scientific confirmation.

    My response to Shahid bin waheed's rebuttal to my "The amazing creation of Earth and Iron" article.

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron.htm   This article shows the Mathematical Codes of Iron in the Noble Quran and Science, and shows how Science confirmed Allah Almighty's Divine Claim in Noble Verses 17:49-50 about the dead converting into rocks and iron.   In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.

    http://www.universalunity.net/iron2.htm   More elaborations on Noble Verses 17:49-51.  In case the web site is down, you can access the article on my site.

    The dead turning into Fossils and Iron. The Noble Quran Claimed it, and Science today Confirmed it!

           

    The Miracles of Earth and the Moon:

    1-  The Miracles of Earth:

  • The 7 layers of earth and iron was sent down from space.
      

  • Allah Almighty Said in the Holy Quran that the Earth is:
      
    1- Spherical.
    2- Suspended in Space.
    3- Rotating around itself. (emphasis on dahaha and its derivatives)
    4- Is traveling in Space.
      
    5- Also, all celestial bodies are
    يعرجون Yaa'rujoon (traveling in orbits) in space.  The countless orbits in the Universe, and the day-layer reveals the sun's brightness.  This video is about Noble Verses 32:5, 34:2, 57:4, 70:3-4 and others, and the Arabic words عرج , عروج , معارج  and  معراج  that all refer to "going in an orbital and curvy path" in the Glorious Quran and our Islamic Texts.
      

    1. Video file.

    2. The Motion of Earth in the Noble Quran.

     
  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the History Channel.
      

  • The iron core makes much of the earth's gravity, by the Discovery Channel.
      

  • Was Adam 90 feet tall?  See how Science suggests that Prophet Muhammad's Hadith is Scientifically True.
      

  • Earth's gravity and the various gravities of the planets mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science.
      

  • The North and South Poles, and Prayer and Fasting Times.  The different SUNRISES and SUNSETS on earth (plural for both)
      

  • The breathing cycle during the day on planet earth by the plants, humans and animals - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
      

  • Lack of Oxygen and painful low pressure in space.  Science confirmed the Noble Quran's Divine Claim.
         

    1. Video file.

    2. Audio file.
        

  • Mountains prevent the earth from shaking while rotating around its own axle.
      

  • The Miracle of the Rain, Thunder and Electrical "fertilization" caused by winds in the Noble Quran!
         

    1. Audio file.

    2. Video file 1.
           

  • The Geological Miracle in Noble Verses 30:2-5 (the place where the Romans were defeated).  (Lowest Land on Earth Miracle)
      

  • Rebuttal to Shamoun's and Katz' "Sinking to Dead Sea Levels" article.
      

  • The location of the lowest land on earth (AUDIO).
      
      
      

  • The sun rays that we see during the day are different from the ones seen in space!  The Miracle of the atmosphere/Day-Layer magnifying the sun rays to make them glorious and bright as we see them everyday.

    1. The skinning of the day from the night Miracle.
        

  • Is it possible for the sun to rise from the West and for the sun to swallow the moon?  Islam makes this prediction!  New Scientific evidences in text and video, from Western scientific sources, about the planet Earth will turn upside down, - as it already did turn and modify its rotation before during the ice age and before, - which will cause for the Sun to rise from the West, was added.
      

  • The Ozone layer is a protective ceiling/roof to earth.
      

  • Our protective sky will eventually "release" its gases into space.
      

  • The Ozone layer is able to heal itself from damage - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
     

  • The Ozone layer is raised to balance air pressure and temperature - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
      

  • The Miracle of the Sky's Cycles in our Atmosphere - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and Confirmed by Science!
      

  • The land-sea ratio Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!  I personally calculated the occurrences of the Words in the Noble Verses in the Glorious Quran.
           

  • Swimming in Space by the Gravitational Waves - Mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
      

  • Darkness in the seas and internal waves in the Noble Quran, confirmed by science.
      

  • The expansion of the earth - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.
      

  • The Earth "Sutihat" (pressed and expanded), and the Bulging Miracle - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.
      

  • The bringing forth of the earth's waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after the expansion of the planet earth.  A new scientific video, from a Western scientist, confirms the stunning Scientific Miracle in Noble Verses 79:30-32 regarding Allah Almighty bringing forth the waters (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc...) after He expanded the earth.  Scientists have proven that our planet earth, indeed, was at one point all covered with land with shallow and limited bodies of water.  The vast bodies of water that we have today, where water today covers more than 70% of the entire globe, happened after the expansion of the earth -- precisely as Allah Almighty mentioned in the Noble Quran.  Scientists have only recently confirmed it!
      

  • End of Times Volcanoes will be caused by the stretching of the earth's crust - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science!


  •   
    1. Earthquakes occur before volcanoes, and the rising of earth's core's heavy metals during earthquakes, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!
        

  • The Miracle of separating the salty seas' waters from each others (with barriers) - Mentioned in the Glorious Quran and confirmed by Science.

  • See the ample Scientific proofs that I've provided from NASA and other reputable sources that prove the Glorious Quran's Miracle.  Also in this video:
      


  • (Click on image to enlarge)
    Atheist Richard Dawkins refuted by Muslim girls on Halocline Phenomenon and Scientific Miracle
    in the Noble Quran. 
    Click to watch video.

      
      

  • 2-  The Miracles of the Moon:

    1. The moon's S-shaped orbit around earth is shaped like a branch of a date tree, mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science!
        

    2. Moon is mentioned 28 times in the Noble Quran, exactly as the number of times and phases it appears to earth!
        

    3. The cracking of the moon mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by science!

      1. Images of the moon's fault line (crack).
          

    4. The Lunar Calendar is the most accurate calendar - mentioned in the Noble Quran and confirmed by Science.  Also the precise calculation of difference between the Gregorian and Lunar calendars is demonstrated in the Noble Quran.

      

    AUDIOs from Dr. Zaghlool Al-Najjar

    Lack of Oxygen and low air pressure in space.

    The constant reduction of earth's size:  The earth used to be 200 times bigger!

    The location of the lowest land on earth.

    Iron was sent down to earth from space.

    The origins of the Universe, Big Bang theory, Cosmic Crunch, and the creation of the SECOND EARTH after the second Big Bang in the Noble Quran and Science.  Also, Dr. Zaghlool's scientific explanation of the earth and heaven coming to Allah Almighty "willingly or unwillingly" and how each celestial object behaves differently depending on its mass.

    The Cosmic Crunch and the creation of the second Universe and second earth.

    Time and the Speed of Light precisely calculated and mentioned in the Noble Quran.
      
      

    VIDEOS proving the Scientific Miracles in the Noble Quran

    The moving mountains in the Noble Quran.

    The function of mountains.

    Related video I.
    Related video II.
    Related video III.
    Related video IV.
    Related video V.

    Iron was sent down from space - A Discovery Channel program with Noble Quranic Verses edited into it.

    Dr. Zaghlool Al-Najjar on the Miracle of Mountains in the Noble Quran.

    The mystery in Iron Miracle of the Quran.

                

    Send your comments.

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